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An Important Look at Academic Reading and Writing
Transcript of An Important Look at Academic Reading and Writing
(teaching strategy) Cohesive Sentences at the Paragraph Level Looking at the Word Level Academic Vocabulary Content Vocabulary Adding Academic (Green) with Content Words (Blue) Academic Language is More than Words Academic language is the register of language used in school Contains prepositional phrase
Prepositional phrase contains
relative clause in passive voice Example taken from Freeman
and Freeman, p. 113 Students need to know how to write and read compound and complex sentences-- and all the clauses that may go with them. The single sentence underlined below contains three independent clauses. The first two are joined by the conjunction "and." The third is connected by a semicolon and uses the transition "therefore" as well as an embedded clause "Truman argued." Teach Students How to Recognize, Read,
and Write Clauses 1. The first way was the freedom that democracies such as the United States enjoyed. 4. The United States had an obligation to support people around the world resisting communism. 3. Truman argued. 2. The second was the oppression of Communist rule. Teacher passes out simple sentences and students use knowledge of conjunctions, transitions, and punctuation to construct one sentence. On to the paragraph... Recognizing and Writing
Cohesive Paragraphs Paragraph Structure
1. Most paragraphs begin with a sentence that states the main idea.
2. Main idea is followed by sentences that show supporting reasons, details, or facts.
3. Paragraphs are usually four to five sentences.
4. All sentences are connected to one another and to the main idea. This
is a starting point
and NOT a rule Long noun phrase 1. Before understanding patterns of cohesion in paragraphs, students can practice dividing simple sentences into topic (subject) and comment (predicate). 1. The United States faced challenges abroad as well as at home in the 1950's chained topic chained topic Paragraph cohesiveness is achieved through three basic types of sentence topic patterns : constant, chained, and derived. 3. Jose went to the store. The manager was glad to see him and showed him some fresh apples. (Derived) 2. Jose went to the store. The store had just received fresh apples. (Chained) 1. Jose went to the store. He was hoping to find fresh apples. (Constant) 1. Jose went to the store. The store had just received fresh apples.
2. Jose went to the store. Sam's Market had just received fresh apples.
2. Jose went to the store to obtain apples. Obtainment of the apples would help his mother make a pie. A Deeper Look at Chained Topics 1. The car was ready to send to the body shop (Brown 2009) suggests teachers
help students find the topic of
clauses and then explain that
the rest of the clause is a comment.
Once students can identify topic
and comment, students can then
be taught the three patterns for
paragraph cohesion (Freeman and
Freeman, p. 111) By showing how the writers of their own
academic texts connect sentences, teachers
can guide their students to better writing (Freeman and Freeman, p. 112) 3. The manager showed them where the interior
parts were installed. 2. The machines painted the car. What is academic language? What is academic writing? Academic writing contains technical terms, is abstract, dense and authoritative. (Fang 2008 as cited in Freeman and Freeman, p.72) Being able to read and write academic informational text is the key to success in school. Ways to Engage Students in
Informational Reading 1. Design lessons and reading opportunities
that provide learning that can be connected
to the world outside of school.
2. Create "knowledge goals" instead of praise or score goals by creating themes and investigating the big questions.
3. Have students interact with each other and the textbook.
4. Have a variety of interesting, connected, reading materials (at all reading levels)
5. Direct instruction that builds background knowledge needed for understanding text.
6. Teacher modeling via think-aloud strategy during read- alouds. And don't forget to teach the genres and their features. For Example: Historical recount (used in history): Retells
events in a sequence. Features: Past tense, third person,
temporal signal words. Example: Tells events leading up
to Civil War Narrative: Story with problem-solution
structure. Teller is a character in the story Features: includes more participants, past tense or present tense, adverbs of manner (quickly), cause and effect signal words Factual Genres
Present Facts Personal Genres
Experiences Example: Tells what writer did when he discovered there would be a test after lunch. excerpt of chart from Freeman and Freeman, p. 95 Teaching a student to become a successful academic reader lays the foundation for a successful academic writer. Are They
Ready ? A. 4 B. 8 C. 13 D. 19 [answers] (Chained by nominization) (Chained by repetition) (Chained by substitution)