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Immigration to the USA

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Humanities Department

on 23 November 2015

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Transcript of Immigration to the USA

Immigration to the USA: Motivation for moving
Why did people emigrate to the US?
The reasons for people moving or emigrating can often be put into push and pull factors.

A
push factor
is



A
pull factor
is

The Statue of Liberty & Ellis Island
OLD IMMIGRATION (1820s-1880s):
Mostly Protestants from Northern Europe - Britain, Germany and Scandinavia. Some of whom were escaping mistreatment due to religious beliefs.

NEW IMMIGRATION (1880s-1920s):
More immigrants were arriving from Eastern and Southern Europe. This included many Jews escaping persecution. Many immigrants from these areas were exceptionally impoverished and/or illiterate.

Connect:
Immigration is often viewed as a highly contentious issue. Immigrants are often blamed for problems existing within a country:
Do you think immigration is a problem in Britain today?
Why do you think immigrants are often blamed for problems?
99% of all crime in the USA is caused by immigrants
Content
Benefits
Why did so many people emigrate to the USA in the early 20th Century?
Where did people emigrate from?
Allow us to begin to consider why immigration became a 'problem' in the USA in the 1920s. Develop source handling skills.
Push factors
Pull factors
Economic migration

Social migration

Political migration

However, this is sometimes too simplistic.

Economic migration -


Social migration -


Political migration -


Draw on your table, the table showing reasons why people emigrated to the USA.
Read through the cards you have been given and place them where you think they best fit.
You might find it best to put some between columns
(eg some migrants were pushed as well as pulled)

EXTENSION: Take the heading reasons why immigrants were attracted to the USA.
Using your table as a reference, bullet point at least 5 factors which attracted immigrants to the US
Immigration 'Waves'
Open door policy?
The USA had long welcomed immigrants. Immigrants were badly needed
To help settle the prairies.
To construct railroads.
To help operate new industries.
To gain a skilled workforce.
To increase the population and strength of the nation.
Ellis Island:
All migrants from Europe would be 'processed' at Ellis Island.
This would involve medical screening, literacy tests and a financial check.
'All men are created equal... as long as they are WASPs'
1882 Federal Immigration Act: restrictions on convicts, lunatics and paupers.
1902 Chinese Exclusion Act: stopped Chinese immigrants for entering California.
1907 Gentleman’s Agreement: Japanese immigrants denied passports to emigrate.
1913 Alien Land Law: stopped immigrants from buying land in California (eleven other states also adopted this law over time)

Why do Americans start fearing immigrants?
Connect:
Eugenics
What impact would eugenics have on attitudes towards immigration?
War was “sold” to the public and hatred towards Germans was promoted.

German language stopped being taught in educational institutions.
German Americans faced both mental and physical abuse.
Families changed their surnames to sound less “German”.

WWI & Attitudes to immigration:
Attitudes to Immigration: Sources Task
In your groups, read through the sources you have been given.
For each source answer the following questions:
Who wrote the source?
What are their views on immigration?
What 'fears' does this source reflect?
What 'evidence' do they use to support this view?

EXTENSION: What impact would views like this have had on Americans?
Changing attitudes to immigration:
Task:
Look at the Push and Pull factors on page 7 of the textbook.

Copy out the three pull factors that you think would have attracted most immigrants to America.

Copy out the three push factors that you think would have made people most keen to emigrate from Europe.
Process
Class discussions, paired task, source work.
anything which makes people want to escape difficulties in their homeland.
anything that attracts people to a new location.
Moving to find work or to seek better pay.


Moving for a better quality of life or to be close to family and friends.


Moving to escape persecution or war.

Review & Reflect
Why did so many people emigrate to the USA in the early 20th Century?
On your post it note write the following:
3 factors which attracted migrants to the US
Which task you learned the most from:
Class discussion
Individual task
Paired source work
'Open Door' begins to close:
Social & Religious fears
Economic fears

Political fears
WASP Racism
Impact of World War One
Questions:
1. Who are the main targets of the immigration restrictions?
2. Why do you think people from these areas were targeted?
3. What factor does this appear linked to?
W
hite
A
nglo-
S
axon
P
rotestant
100% Americanism movement:
100% Americanism was the belief that America should be for Americans only. Largely this view was promoted by 'nativists' people who were born in America. Psuedo-science was used to promote ideas that WASPs were racially superior to others. Many politicians supported the movement, realising the potential to win votes.
1.
2. How do you think this movement would have affected attitudes towards immigration in the US?
3. What is problematic with the term 'nativists' as used by the 100% Americanism movement?
Why do Americans start fearing immigrants?



Anarchist fears
Social fears
Economic fears

Religious & Political fears
Communist fears
Impact of World War One
Working in pairs, create a display/presentation/poster to explain why American attitudes to immigration changed after World War One.

Success Criteria:
Must explain how WWI changed attitudes towards foreign born Americans.
For each 'fear'
Give an explanation of what caused the fear.
What immigrants were accused of.
What 'evidence' was used to support these claims.
What impact this fear had on the way immigrants were treated in America.
White Booklet - Use pages 6-10
Free at last - Use pages 18-21
White textbook - Use pages 44-49
Research the Anti-Immigration Laws that were passed between 1917 and 1924.
Explain what each act prevented and what 'fear' the act was reflecting.
WASP Racism: The root cause of changing attitudes to immigrants?
'New Immigrants'
Political Fears: The 'Red' Scare
In 1917 there was a communist revolution in Russia.
Capitalist countries such as the USA became fearful that communism would spread, meaning the richest in society would lose their wealth.
Political Fears: the Palmer Raids
Political Fears: Sacco & Vanzetti
WASP Racism
The KKK did not just target Black Americans. Their prejudice extended to anyone who was not a WASP and viewed themselves as responsible for ensuring America was 100% American.


Catholics or Jews > religious fears
Traditional clothing > social fears
Viewed as potential anarchists or communists > political fears
Dirty and malnoursihed > social fears
'Unclean' blood > social fears
Willing to work for lower wages > economic fears
1. Which of the points on the diagram can be put down to racist attitudes towards non-WASPs?
2. How important do you think racism was in changing attitudes towards immigration?
Mitchell Palmer was an ambitious US politician. In 1919 his house was blown up. Communists were blamed for the attacks. A media frenzy was whipped up, alleging 'Reds' planned May-day massacres.
Palmer saw it as his personal duty to round up and deport anyone suspected of being a 'Red'.
These became known as the Palmer raids, resulting in the deportation of over 600 Eastern European 'communist terrorists'.
However, only 3 of the 600 were found to have any weapons and many had no communist connections at all.
1. Describe how the Palmer raids would have increased public support for tighter immigration controls.
2. What reasons might Palmer have had for conducting the raids?
Evidence they were guilty
Evidence they were innocent
Both were carrying guns when arrested.
61 eye witnesses identified them as the killers.
Both acted in a 'guilty manner' when arrested.
Vanzetti had a previous conviction for armed robbery.
107 people confirmed their alibi that they were elsewhere at the time of the crime.
The 61 eye witnesses could not agree on exact details and many changed their evidence several times.
A number of other men confessed to the killing.

1. Do you think there was sufficient evidence to convict Sacco & Vanzetti of murder?
2. Why do you think they were found guilty of murder?
3. How does their case highlight racist attitudes towards immigrants?
OLD IMMIGRATION (1820s-1880s):
Mostly Protestants from Northern Europe - Britain, Germany and Scandinavia.

NEW IMMIGRATION (1880s-1920s):
More immigrants were arriving from Eastern and Southern Europe. This included many Jews escaping persecution. Many immigrants from these areas were exceptionally impoverished and/or illiterate.

Immigration 'Waves'
W
hite
A
nglo-
S
axon
P
rotestant
'All men are created equal... as long as they are WASPs'
Eugenics
What impact would eugenics have on attitudes towards immigration?
In what way can this be linked to WASP Racism?
Immigration Restrictions:
Read through page 11 of the booklet.
Summarise each act in your jotter
Which nationalities/races are targeted the most by these Acts?
Which nationalities/races benefit the most?
How big an influence do you think WASP racism was over these acts?
Republican Senator Smith, in 1924 :
“I think we now have sufficient population in our country for us to shut the door and to breed up a pure, unadulterated American citizenship. I recognize that there is a dangerous lack of distinction between people of a certain nationality and the breed of the dog.”
Strength of Racism
1920s USA was an exceptionally racist society.
By 1925 the KKK had grown to over 3,000,000 members.
Racist and anti-immigrant comments were common in American politics.
Why do Americans start fearing immigrants?
Social & Religious fears
Economic fears

Political fears
WASP Racism
Impact of World War One
Read through the handout you have been given.
Explain how each factor changed attitudes towards immigration.
What is the relationship between racist views and each factor?
Could this factor have been used to justify racist views?
Would this factor have had such a great impact had racism not already been so widespread and 'acceptable' in the USA?
Full transcript