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Oregon Trail

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Lena Underwood

on 28 April 2011

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Transcript of Oregon Trail

Wyoming Some Famous Landmarks: Fort Caspar Independence Rock Devil's Gate Fort Bridger South Pass Fort Lamarie Landmarks Fort Casper was built later in the trail years. It was built to mainly protect a telegraph office. Ft. Casper, unlike the other forts, was majorly attacked. A wagon of 25 soldiers were travelling to a fort in the west, when Sioux, Cheyenne and Arapaho attacked by thousands. Only 3 out of 25 survived. Later, Col. John Chivington led the Sand Creek Massacre and slaughtered 100 defenseless Native Americans. Toddlers were shot for target practice; babies were scalped; a pregnant woman was sliced open. He said

“Damn any man who sympathizes with Indians. I have come to kill Indians and I believe it is right to use any means. I long to be wading in gore."
Less than a decade after its construction, the tribes burned ft.Casper down.
Fort Laramie was a sight to see. It was military post and was the first sign of civilization in six weeks of traveling. Fort Laramie was the gateway to the Rocky Mountains. The fort was first found by a trader named William Sublette who built a wooden fortification and they called it Fort William. There were no emigrants back then and William’s goal was to trade with the local tribes. In 1841, the fort was sold to the American Fur Company. They rebuilt it as an adobe structure. Unfortunately, the fur trade was out of business and the fur traders were out of Fort Laramie by 1849. The army bought it and used it as a military post to protect emigrants from the hostile, Sioux. Emigrants hoped that Fort Bridger would be a nice, civilized fort kind of like Fort Laramie. The sight was an unfortunate one. The fort is crudely constructed with rough, hewn log cabins. This fort was first constructed in 1843 to help the emigrants in their long journey. This fort was privately owned by a guy named Jim Bridger. By the time he had built the fort, he was the most famous person in the west. The location of the fort was great. It flourished with trees, and plenty of watrer. He had discovered Great Salt Lake, and he has invented new trails in the west. Unfortunately new shortcuts were created that went 100 miles around the fort. Within ten years, people were avoiding this fort. Many people gathered at the Independence Rock on July 4th. They chiseled messages on the rock with others following behind. Pies were baked and revelry was shared. Here’s what other people said about the celebration.

Emigrant James Nesmith:
"Had the pleasure of waiting on five or six young ladies to pay a visit to Independence Rock. I had the satisfaction of putting the names of Miss Mary Zachary and Miss Jane Mills on the southeast point of the rocks."

Emigrant Margaret Hecox:
"Being the fourth of July, we concluded to lay by and celebrate the day. The children had no fireworks, but we all joined in singing patriotic songs and shared in a picnic lunch."

South pass was the most important landmark on the Oregon Trail. Without south pass, Oregon and California wouldn’t be part of the USA, and Wagon travel across the continent would be impossible. This is a point of an emigrant’s point of view.
Emigrant Lorenzo Sawyer:
"Most emigrants have a very erroneous idea of South Pass, and their inquiries about it are amusing enough. They suppose it to be a narrow defile in the Rocky Mountains walled by perpendicular rocks hundreds of feet high. The fact is the pass is a valley some 20 miles wide."
Even though they got through South Pass, there was no reason to celebrate. There were thousands of miles left.
Animals You Might Encounter Animals buffalo This was the pioneers’ first encounter with buffalo. They would chase after buffalo, not for food, but for sport. Unlike pioneers, the Native American caught them to eat. What some of the pioneers said when they first encountered buffalo were:
Emigrant Isaac Foster:
"The valley of the Platte for 200 miles; dotted with skeletons of buffalos; such a waste of the creatures God had made for man seems wicked, but every emigrant seems to wish to signalize himself by killing a buffalo."

Emigrant John Wyeth:
"We saw them in frightful droves as far as the eye could reach; appearing at a distance as if the ground itself was moving like a sea."

Emigrant William Kilgore:
"Buffalo extended the whole length of our afternoon's travel, not in hundreds, but in solid phalanx. I estimated two million."

-quoted from http://www.isu.edu/~trinmich/Buffallo.html Meadowlark Moose Elk Bear The western meadowlark was made Wyoming’s state bird in 1927. adults are 8-11 inches long and have a black and white striped head; a long, pointed bill; yellow cheeks; bright yellow throat; and a distinctive black "V" on their breast. They are usually perched on fence tops and singing 7-10 notes as their song. (the last three notes are usually descending down). They make their nests on the ground and hunt on the ground for insects, grain and weed seeds. Specifically, their diet consists of beetles, cutworms, caterpillars, grasshoppers, spiders, sow bugs, and snails. The most common bear that makes its habitat in Wyoming is the Grizzly Bear. Grizzly Bears also make their home in Idaho, Montana, and Washington. Adult Grizzly Bears are usually 6-8 feet long. Most male adult bears weigh 400-600 pounds. Female Grizzlies are usually 250-400 pounds. Their diets include berries, fish, grass, leaves, insects, roots, and land animals. During the winter the bear hibernates in dens. Most Grizzlies tried to avoid meeting the pioneers. Maps Grizzly The elks main home is in North America. Shawnee Indians called the elk wapiti. People call the male elk bulls, and the female elk cows. They weigh approximately 700-1,100 pounds. During the winter, Elk travel down from the high mountains called parks and travel to the lower valleys where it is warmer. The male elks mate with the female elks during September and October. The baby elk come out at around May to June. When the snow starts to melt, the elk return back to the higher mountains. Their diets include twigs and needles of fir, juniper, and many hardwood trees and shrubs. Weather You might encounter Hardships along the way Moose are the biggest out of the deer family. They stand 7 and a half feet tall (2.3 meters). They can weigh more than 1800 pounds (816 kilograms ). Moose inhabit northern forests throughout the world. In Europe, they are known as elk and live in northern Scandinavia and eastward through Siberia. In North America, moose live in Canada and Alaska and southward into the Rocky Mountains to Utah and Colorado. They also live in parts of Maine, Michigan, Minnesota, New Hampshire, and North Dakota. Weather Hardships along the way Rain Hail Snow Dust thunder storms Major hardships in Wyoming were similar to other states. Diseases were one of the hard ships.
•There was cholera, a diarrhea illness, which causes infection to the intestines. Cholera was spread by dirty water and food. The bacterium was probably in the polluted water so that’s how they got cholera.
•Head and body lice was probably the most common diseases on the Oregon trail. They were caused by not being able to bathe. Head lice fed on blood and infest the hairy parts of the body. They need warm temperature to survive and only live to about 20 days. In that time, they will produce more eggs.
•Malaria is a disease you can only get by being bitten by a malaria infected mosquito. The malaria spreads to the liver where it grows rapidly.
•Scurvy is a disease caused by improper diet. It causes swelling and hemorrhaging.

Diseases Weather was also another big problem. Rain could damage the canvas cover of the wagons and get the wheels stuck in mud. When some of the wheels got stuck in the mud, sometimes they would be very deep and cause a delay. Hail, in the winter, was sometimes large as apples. Here’s a list of what weathers would happen on the trip.

• Mud
• Hail
• Hard Rains
• Lightning/ Thunder
• Dust
• Snow and wind

And here are some pictures. Weather Sometimes it was just common mistakes that would cause death and accidents. Such as inexperienced wagon driving, causing broken bones, serious injuries and sometimes death. The oxen was sometimes weren’t latched to the wagon quickly. Animals would be stolen or they would drift away. Common Mistakes The trail was a problem. They didn’t ride in the wagons because it was bumpy and unpleasant, and the wagons were completely filled. People would have bloody feet and holes in their shoes. But nothing would stop them from walking all 2,000 miles to Oregon. If someone lost their wagon, they could lose all their supplies, wagon and even their own life. Trail Questions and Answers How many miles of the trail were in your state How many days do you predict it would take to cross your state Are there any major Indian tribes? What and where Where can you get supplies ? ? ? ? Questions
Answers There’s a narrow canyon a few miles west from Independence Rock. That canyon is called Devil’s gate. The Sweetwater threads through it. In the early 1860s, four women were part of a wagon that stopped at the edge of a ridge. One of the women, who was 18, wandered to close to the cliff, fell and died. She was buried in the gorge and this is what her tombstone said.
"Here lies the body of Caroline Todd
Whose soul has lately gone to God;
Ere redemption was too late,
She was redeemed at Devil"s Gate.

Bibliography Bibliography Works Cited
Google. Web. 12 Apr. 2011. <http://www.google.com/>.
Idaho State University. Web. 12 Apr. 2011. <http://www.isu.edu/~trinmich/Sites.html>.
Native American Language Net: Preserving and Promoting Indigenous American Indian Languages. Web. 12 Apr. 2011. <http://www.native-languages.org/>.
Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Web. 12 Apr. 2011. <http://en.wikipedia.org/>.
World Book. Web. <http://www.worldbookonline.com/wb/Login?ed=wb&subacct=8500785>.
There were three major tribes in Wyoming. The Shoshone, and the Cheyenne. The Shoshone Indians formed three different groups, the Eastern Shoshone, the Western Shoshone, and the Northern Indians. One of the most famous Shoshone Indians, and maybe the most famous Native American was Sacagawea. She helped Lewis and Clark in their expedition to explore America’s new land. The second group of Native Americans were the Cheyenne. They were geographically divided into two different groups. The North, and the South. There were around 11,000 Native Americans living in the area. Troops of the Colorado militia massacred more than 150 peaceful Southern Cheyenne and Arapaho at Sand Creek, Colorado, in 1864. The surviving Indians moved to a reservation in Oklahoma in 1869. The Northern Cheyenne fought to keep their hunting lands when white settlers tried to take them. In 1876, Northern Cheyenne and Sioux forces defeated Lieutenant Colonel George A. Custer in the Battle of the Little Bighorn in Montana. The last group of Indians were the Sioux. The Sioux were famous for their warrior like skills and good political skills. Many new white settlers overran the tribes territory and killed many of buffalo. The Sioux were enemies with the pioneers. Many military bases were built to protect the pioneers moving along the road. There were many different places that you can supplies. You can stop at forts to resupply or there were places along the way where you could stock up on new supplies. Kind of like a break stop. What the Physical Region Looks Like mountains Grassland/
Plains These mountains are part of
the high, Rocky Mountains. They made the journey ever harder! The trail through Wyoming was mostly through grassland. The long walks were not as challenging as the mountains because of bumpiness. Even still, it was a hard journey through the grasslands We couldn't get it accuratly, but we came up with 490 miles in Wyoming We got 31 days according to the number of miles we got. Created and produced by
Lena Underwood,
Magan Chang,
Koji Lee,
Matthew Kim.
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