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Chapter 5 TERRITORY & PERSONAL SPACE
Transcript of Chapter 5 TERRITORY & PERSONAL SPACE
The Effects of Personal Space and Territory
on Human Communication
An invisible, flexible bubble that surrounds us
A sphere of space that surrounds us totally, from floor to ceiling, from front to back, from side to side
A body buffer zone to protect us from the intrusion of others
Hall’s (1959, 1966) SPACE classification Scheme
Movable space you must claim in some way, both temporary occupancy or ownership
The Effects of
Territory and Personal Space on Human Communication.
E. T. Hall : seminal works
The silent language (1959)
The hidden dimension. (1966). .
The communicative potential of personal spacing:
Conversational distance expands, contracts under varying circumstances (type of encounter, relationship, personality, etc.)
Other factors influencing distancing expectations
Cultural & Ethnic background
Social role theory of Eagly (1987)
Territories of the Self
Erving Goffman (1971).
Relations in public
Irwin Altman (1975).
The environment & social behavior.
Lyman & Scott (1967).
Territoriality: a neglected sociological dimension.
1. Intimate: 0-18 inches
2. Casual-personal: 1.5-4 feet
3. Social-consultative (Impersonal): 4-12 feet
4. Public: 12 feet to limits of visibility
Variations in conversational distance
Factors influencing variation in conversational distance
Topic or subject matter
Setting for the interaction
Attitudinal & emotional orientations
Characteristics of the interpersonal relationship
INVASION & DEFENSE
LYMAN & SCOTT ( 1976)
THREE TYPES OF TERRITORIAL ENCROACHMENTS
Three types of territories (Altman, 1975)
Four types of territories on basis of accessibility (Lyman & Scott, 1976)
1. Public territory
2. Interactional territory
3. Home territory
4. Body territory
Use of markers (Goffman, 1971)
Density and Crowding
Behavioral sink experiment
Central theme of this area of research
is that perceptions of crowding tend to increase
as we perceive a decrease in our ability to control and influence our physical and social surroundings.