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Chapter 5 TERRITORY & PERSONAL SPACE

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Nancy Spaeder

on 25 February 2014

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Transcript of Chapter 5 TERRITORY & PERSONAL SPACE

Chapter 5
The Effects of Personal Space and Territory
on Human Communication

PERSONAL SPACE
An invisible, flexible bubble that surrounds us

A sphere of space that surrounds us totally, from floor to ceiling, from front to back, from side to side

A body buffer zone to protect us from the intrusion of others

PERSONAL SPACE
Hall’s (1959, 1966) SPACE classification Scheme
TERRITORIALITY
Movable space you must claim in some way, both temporary occupancy or ownership
TERRITORIALITY
Personal Space
The Stall
Use Space
The Turn
The Sheath
Possession Territory
Information Preserve
Conversation Preserve
The Effects of
Territory and Personal Space on Human Communication.
Territoriality
Personal Space
E. T. Hall : seminal works
The silent language (1959)
The hidden dimension. (1966). .
The communicative potential of personal spacing:
Conversational distance expands, contracts under varying circumstances (type of encounter, relationship, personality, etc.)
Other factors influencing distancing expectations
Age differences
Sex differences

Cultural & Ethnic background


Social role theory of Eagly (1987)
Contact cultures
Non-contact cultures

Territories of the Self
Goffman (1971)
Erving Goffman (1971).
Relations in public

Irwin Altman (1975).
The environment & social behavior.
Lyman & Scott (1967).
Territoriality: a neglected sociological dimension.
1. Intimate: 0-18 inches
2. Casual-personal: 1.5-4 feet
3. Social-consultative (Impersonal): 4-12 feet
4. Public: 12 feet to limits of visibility
Variations in conversational distance
Factors influencing variation in conversational distance

Topic or subject matter
Setting for the interaction
Physical characteristics
Attitudinal & emotional orientations
Characteristics of the interpersonal relationship
Personality characteristics


PERSONAL SPACE
INVASION & DEFENSE
LYMAN & SCOTT ( 1976)

1. VIOLATION

2. INVASION

3. CONTAMINATION
Informal/Interpersonal Space
THREE TYPES OF TERRITORIAL ENCROACHMENTS
Three types of territories (Altman, 1975)
1. primary
2. secondary
3. public
Four types of territories on basis of accessibility (Lyman & Scott, 1976)
1. Public territory
2. Interactional territory
3. Home territory
4. Body territory
Use of markers (Goffman, 1971)
central markers
boundary markers
ear markers
Density and Crowding
Behavioral sink experiment
Calhoun (1962)
Central theme of this area of research
is that perceptions of crowding tend to increase
as we perceive a decrease in our ability to control and influence our physical and social surroundings.
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