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Julie Canniff

on 12 January 2014

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Transcript of Identity


"Identity" refers to those unique qualities which make up our personality and self-concept.
Our NAME represents the first public expression of who we are.
Thus . . . our self-concept is layered with names, places and experiences of people, places and events in our life.
Popular Culture
The place we are from defines who we are in subtle and profound ways. Our personality is influenced by the geography and affinity for "home."
Our place
But most important, our self-concept is connected to a family story that spans generations.
Identity Achieved
Identity Moratorium
Identity Foreclosed
"The great task of adolescence is learning to identify and express one's multiple identities in personally meaningful and socially acceptable ways."

We begin to think of our 'self ' as someone who has strengths and weaknesses.
We begin to make comparisons with our peers about their abilities.
We usually maintain a positive self-concept through elementary school.

This is a time when our positive self-concept decreases, especially for girls.
Our physical appearance becomes synonymous with our concept of 'self.'
When friendships, family, school or social organizations become more complex we become less able to read how 'others' see us.
We may become self-focused, seeing ourselves as totally unique, not having anything in common with others.
This is a time when risk-taking behavior develops.
Ages 14-21
We begin to negotiate who we are with the rest of the world around us by asking the essential questions:
Who am I?
Who do I want to be?
What do I want to do?
Why am I here?
Where do I belong?
What do I believe?

As we move into adulthood, we reconcile our childhood and adolescent selves with a more permanent identity.
And, we develop our own beliefs, standards, and goals.

Ages 10-14
Ages 6-10
Gender differences
Boys tend to over-estimate their abilities in adolescence.
Girls tend to have a lower sense of self as they get older.
perceptions of their abilities in adolescence tend to mirror stereotypes.

Names have history, meaning and power.
Names convey ancestry.
Names convey political status. Names convey traditions that are passed along from generation to generation.
Our personalities are influenced and often shaped by people and events in popular culture.
And a story that remembers important traditions.
How are race and gender affirmed or dismissed in school settings?

What does it mean to be a lesbian in a school setting?

How can an adoptee explore his or her identity in a school environment?

How is a quest for identity linked to academic learning?
Identity Development
Discovering who we are, who we want to be, and where we belong reaches a pivotal stage in adolescence.
FAMILY: adolescents sustain close ties to extended family throughout their lives.
LOCUS OF CONTROL: they accept personal responsibility, seeks autonomy
COGNITIVE TRAITS: they demonstrate high motivation and high achievement; they are strong planners & decision-makers
CHARACTER TRAITS: they have high self-esteem; their social intelligence is well developed - they make authentic and long-lasting friendships; are curious
FAMILY: these adolescents have ambivalent or conflicted relationships with family.
LOCUS OF CONTROL: they seek belonging and self-esteem through others.
COGNITIVE TRAITS: they are able to integrate and analyze information from multiple perspectives
CHARACTER TRAITS: they are persistent, curious; their social intelligence leads to close friendships
FAMILY: These adolescents are strongly attached to family; tend to mirror family values and beliefs
LOCUS OF CONTROL: they conform to the expectations of significant others
COGNITIVE TRAITS: they are not open to new experiences; they have limited ability to integrate new ideas [see the world in black and white], they have limited ability to think analytically.
CHARACTER TRAITS: they are attracted to friends with similar values and beliefs; they have an authoritarian communication style
Identity Diffused
FAMILY: low attachment to family members or caregivers.
LOCUS OF CONTROL: influenced by peers toward conformity
COGNITIVE TRAITS: dislike institutional settings
CHARACTER TRAITS: operate from intuition and impulse; procrastinate, avoid confrontation, social intelligence limited to superficial issues
Kroger, J. (2003). Identity development during adolescence. Blackwell Handbook of Adolescence. www.academic.udayton.edu.

Erikson, E. (1968) Identity: Youth and Crisis. New York: W.W. Norton
Cultural differences
In many cultures the sense of self is closely linked to one's family and community, not the individual.

Children's perception of their abilities (strengths and weaknesses) will be balanced and based on actual experiences, not always on gender stereotypes.

People who retain their native language and ethnic identity while adding selected traits from the dominant culture will live successfully in "two worlds."
name, place, family (members, history, secrets), role, locus of control, cognitive traits, and character traits, (empathy, optimism, self-discipline, curiosity, persistence & humor)

experiences significant TENSION with

ethnicity, gender identity, IQ, social class, physical ability/disability, religion,
According to Erik Erikson (1968), who articulated a psychological theory of this process, identity development in adolescence may be smooth, it may get stuck for a while or it may stop there.

His key concepts incorporate primarily CORE identity traits
Designated Identities
As adolescents enter middle and high school they confront identities that society labels them with. Their successful identity development depends, in part on how they resolve some of these questions and tensions
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