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Transcript of Psychoanalysis 2014
(1856 - 1939)
Born in Freiberg, Moravia (now Pribor in the Czech Republic)
Received medical degree from University of Vienna (neurology)
Interested in the conscious/unconscious
Worked with a hypnotherapist
Coined the terms 'id' 'ego' and 'superego'
The 'father' of psychoanalysis
Born in Paris
Was a licensed forensic psychiatrist
Reinterpreted Freud's psychoanalytic theory
Ruled by 'reality principle'
Ego is what you think of as you
Mediates between id and superego
Realistic, is reasonable and takes things into account
Developed from id
Interprets and (usually) acts on superego
Usually functions as conscious and pre-conscious
Operates with 'pleasure principle'
We are id at birth
The id wants immediate gratification
The id is childish and impulsive
Doesn't care about consequences
Aim is to decrease pain and increase pleasure
Idealistic rather than realistic
Knows right/wrong; good/bad
Moralising and civilising - it supresses unacceptable urges
Learned through socialisation
Unavailable to a person's consciousness
Holds all experiences, memories and repressed material
It also holds the desires and urges we are not aware of (what is repressed)
Investigation of the unconscious can reveal neuroses
All that we know and are aware of
everything that is not conscious but can be easily retrieved (like memories)
can become conscious without therapy
Through dream analysis the unconscious can be revealed
Dreams express what the conscious state was/is afraid to express
Through interpretation psychologists find the significance behind dreams and behaviours (or narratives/characters/authors) to provide insight
How do the operations of repression structure or inform the work?
How can characters' behavior, narrative events, and/or images be explained in terms of psychoanalytic concepts of any kind (fear or fascination w/death, sexuality - love and romance, sexual behavior - as a primary indicator of psychological identity or the operations of ego-id-superego)?
What does the work suggest about the psychological being of its author/creator?
What might book suggest about psychological motives of reader/audience?
How to use psychoanalysis
-Criticism enables reader to identify psychological being of author (better understanding)
-Gain insight into the inner workings of the plot and characters thought analysis of behavior and personality
-Ability to comprehend character's actions and the consequences that follow
-Elicits reader's own unconscious
Strengths of psychoanalytic theory
Limitations of psychoanalytic theory
Readers appeal to the id, ego and superego differently
Makes assumptions that cannot be absolutely verified
Ignores the aesthetic appeal and disregards suspense that makes a work entertaining
Tend to read sex into everything, exaggerating this aspect in literature
Some works do not readily lend themselves to this approach
Goal is preservation of the self and the species
Sexual impulses, love and affection
To undo and destroy
'return to an earlier state'
this word was not used by Freud
Psychoanalysis is not:
can be defined as a philosophy of the mind – mental processes are understood in symbolic terms, analysed and interpreted to account for human behaviours.
this is the science of human mental activity (perception, memory, problem solving, etc.).
this dates from the early 1800s and refers to the medical treatment of mental disorder.
Psychoanalysis is a theoretical methodology used for the analysis of a subject.
Psychoanalytic theory provides a way of analyzing the human psyche from a psychological perspective through the observation and examination of unconscious factors that affect an individual's emotions and behaviour.
Unconscious psychological drives and impulses in shaping human behaviour or artistic production.
What examples of id, ego and superego could you think of?
Erogenous zone: Mouth
Governed by: id
During this stage, all of the objects of desire are oriented toward the mouth. A mother's breast becomes the first object of desire of the child. Coincidentally, the mother becomes the first love object of the child.
Erogenous zone: Bowl and Bladder
Development of Ego
In this stage, Freud theorized that the pleasure in a child derives from defecation and that this is connected to the pleasure of creating something of their own. Also, a child has to learn how to control the urge to defecate, which also affects their personality. Some children become anal retentive and obsessed with order and cleanliness and others become anal expulsive and become messy and disorganized.
3 - 6 years
Love for mother in boys becomes sexual. The child feels aggression towards his father. When the child realizes he cannot have his mother, he identifies with his father.
Roots in the discovery of girls that they do not have penises. The child blames her mother for her lack a penis and experiences penis envy, desiring her father as consequence. Girls then learn to identify with the mother through mutual lack of penis.
6 years - puberty
During this stage sexual desires are repressed and children mainly interact with same sex peers. Sexual drive is dormant, thus repressed libidal energy is poured into sports, school and same-sex friendships. Also in this stage, children gradually free themselves from the parents and become more independent. Children move beyond their childhood ego and learn how to love others.
Puberty - Death
At this stage, desire is derived from the genitals. There is a return to the phallic stage, but a replacement of the parent with other members of opposite sex. Thus, sexual desire appears on a conscious level.
in this stage occur from the mother being over indulgent or the opposite and contribute to over-eating, alcoholism, smoking and chewing nails.
in this stage affects your attitudes towards possessions and authority.
in this stage affects attitudes in relation to sexuality and relationships.
in this stages develops from failure in redirecting libidal energy, thus affecting relationships.
in this stage also affects the development of healthy relationships.
Stages and Fixation
Psychoanalytic Analysis of Poetry
Read the poem you have been assigned using psychoanalytic theory
Consider id, ego, superego, eros, thanatos, stages of development, fixation, repression, castration