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Stars

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by

Amber Schulte

on 22 January 2014

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Transcript of Stars

Stars
What types of stars are there?
How do stars grow?
Stars grow depending on there mass. Every star starts out as a protostar, this is the very first stage of star. If the star turns out to be a low mass star, the star will spend most of its life as a red dwarf. These stars burn their hydrogen fuel very slowly and can live as long as 100 billion years, eventually the dwarf will turn into a small dim white dwarf and burn out slowly. Intermediate star start off as a main squence star, which is a star that is gathering hydrogen fuel so it will be able to grow into a bigger star. These stars will quickly mature into a red giant, but after burning all of their fuel they slowly deteriorate into a white dwarf. The star continues to die and then turns into a black dwarf. A dense star that is made up only of oxygen and carbon. High mass stars have the shortest life, because they are very big so they burn their hydrogen fuel a lot faster then other stars. High mass stars also start off main sequence star, they then turn into a red giant, As they burn their fuel very quickly, they turn into a massive supergiant. These stars have used all there fuel turning into supergiants so they don't spend much time as a supergiant. The star has exshausted itself at this point and collapses in on itselves, that causes a huge explosion called a supernova. Sometimes the supernova will collapse and form a neutron star. But sometimes it the star it big enough the supernova will turn into a black hole, they have a extremely powerful gravitational pull because they are so dense. They pull all sorts of debris sometimes even small stars into there murky depths. And that is how different stars mature and then eventually die.
What are closest stars to Earth?
How hot can stars get?
Stars can get extremely hot. Most people think that the bigger the star the hotter it can get, but really it depends mostly on the color, the redder the star the cooler it is and the bluer the star the hotter it is. Most red stars such as the red giant stars are around 2800 degrees Celsius. Stars with a more orange colour such as supergiants are more around 5800 degrees Celsius. Bluer stars such as main sequence stars are more around 9800 degrees Celsius. The hottest star can get up to 35000 degrees Celsius which are mostly white dwarf stars. The cores of stars are even hotter, cores of neutron stars can get up to 100000000 degrees Celsius.
What are stars?
A star are those bright spectacles that you see in the night sky. But if you look closely enough, using telescopes you can see that they are much more then just a spectacle. Stars may seem close too Earth, but most stars can be millions to billions of miles away from Earth. But what exactly is a star? A star is a ball of hot gases, made up mostly of hydrogen and helium, they are massive and extremely hot. A star like any living thing is born and must also die. Stars can live up to billions of years old depending on the size and temperature, before dieing.
How is a star born?
Stars are born inside of a nebula. The star is born when a cloud of gas and dust gets compressed together by gravity to a point. At this point the new born star is called a protostar, now not all protostars turn into a full star. If the mass is to small the star will just shrink away. If the mass is great enough and the protostar collects enough debris, such as gas, dust, and rock from its surrounding area, then it's core will start to heat up to a point where the particles undergo nuclear fusion. It is a nuclear reaction in which two nuclei under go so much pressure that they join together forming a new atomic nucleus, at this point a full fledged star is born.
There are many different types of stars. When a star is first born it has a certain mass, depending on its mass the star will be put into a category, low mass , intermediate mass, and high mass. Each category stars have a different life cycle. All categories are made up of these stars; red dwarf, which is the first stage for most stars. A Red giant, is a big star. A super giant, is a massive red star. A white dwarf star is a very dim but hot star A black dwarf star is a dead star, basically made up of only carbon and oxygen, which has no light. A supernova, is a super giant that is exploding, which can create a black hole, that is like a pit of darkness. These are the different stars.
The closest star to Earth is the Sun, it's only 149,668,992 km away from Earth. The next closest star is Proxima Centauri which is 39,734,219,300,000 km away or 4.2 light years. The 3rd closest star is Rigil Kentauraus, also known as Beta Orionis for it is the brightest star in the constellation Orion. It is 772.9 light years from Earth. Those are the three closest stars to Earth.
A Nebula
A red giant star
A Black Hole
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