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Chapter 9: Chemical Reactions

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Sydney Sturgeon

on 21 January 2016

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Transcript of Chapter 9: Chemical Reactions

Chapter 9: Chemical Reactions
Jan. 8th-21st
+ Separates two or more reactants or products

Separates reactants from products

Separates reactants from products and indicates a reversible reaction

(s) Identifies a solid state

(l) Identifies a liquid state

(g) Identifies a gaseous state

(aq) Identifies a water (aqueous) solution

Shows heat added

Shows a catalyst added
Chemical Reactions
Chemical reaction - Process by which the atoms of one or more substances are rearranged to form different substances
Chemical change
4 indicators:
(1) Temperature change
(2) Color change
(3) Odor change
(4) Gas (bubbling) or solid (precipitate) is formed from a liquid
Chemical Reactions
Consist of reactants (starting materials) and products (substances formed)

Represented by a chemical equation
Use symbols and formulas to show the identities and relative amounts of the reactants and products
Symbols
H2SO4
Example of a Chemical Equation
ALL chemical equations need to be balanced. Use coefficients to balance an equation.
Coefficients are 1:2:1:2
Word equation:
methane(g) + oxygen(g) carbon dioxide(g) + water(l)
Balancing Chemical Equations
Balancing Chemical Equations VIDEO
Steps to balance a chemical equation:
(1) Write the skeleton equation for the reaction
(2) Count the atoms of the elements in the reactants
(3) Count the atoms of the elements in the products
(4) Change the coefficients to make the number of atoms of each element equal on both sides of the equation
(5) Write the coefficients in their lowest possible ratio (reduce coefficients to the smallest whole numbers possible)
(6) Check your work
Balancing Chemical Equations Practice Problem #3
Balancing Chemical Equations Practice Problem #3
Balance the following equation:

C H (g) + O (g) CO (g) + H O(l)
4
10
2
2
2
Once you have an answer compare it with someone around you.
Balanced chemical equation (don't forget to reduce coefficients to the smallest whole number):

2C H (g) + 13O (g) 8CO (g) + 10H O(l)
4
10
2
2
2
Reactants:
C atoms: 8
H atoms: 20
O atoms: 26
Products:
C atoms: 8
H atoms: 20
O atoms: 26
Types of Chemical Reactions
5 Types:
(1) Synthesis
(2) Combustion
(3) Decomposition
(4) Single-replacement/displacement (SR)
(5) Double-replacement/displacement (DR)
Synthesis Reaction
Where two or more substances react to produce a single product

A + B AB
Synthesis Reaction Practice
Predict the product for the following reaction and then balance the final equation:
Once you have an answer compare it with someone around you.
CaO(s) + CO (g)
2
Synthesis Reaction Practice
Complete balanced synthesis chemical equation:
CaO(s) + CO (g) CaCO (s)
2
3
Combustion Reaction
When oxygen combines with a substance and releases energy in the form of heat and light

Carbon dioxide and water are often products

A + O AO
2
Combustion Reaction Practice
Predict the products and then balance the final equation:
C H (g) + O (g)
Once you have an answer compare it with someone around you.
2
6
2
Combustion Reaction Practice
Complete balanced combustion reaction equation:
2C H (g) + 7O (g) 4CO (g) + 6H O(l)
2
6
2
2
2
Decomposition Reaction
Where a single compound breaks down into two or more elements or new compounds

AB A + B
Decomposition Reaction Practice
Predict the products and the balance the following equation:
Once you have an answer compare it with someone around you.
SnO(s)
Decomposition Reaction Practice
The complete balanced decomposition chemical equation:
Single-replacement Reaction
Where atoms of one element replace the atoms of another element in a compound

A + BX AX + B

Single-replacement Reaction
Activity Series (pg. 293)
Helps determine whether or not a reaction will occur
Some reactions will not occur (NR = no reaction)
THE MORE ACTIVE/REACTIVE ELEMENT WILL REMAIN IN A COMPOUND!!!
Single-replacement (SR) Reaction Practice
Predict the products and balance the following equation (be careful as the reaction may not occur):
MgCl (s) + Na(s)
2
Once you have an answer compare it with someone around you.
Single-replacement (SR) Reaction Practice
The balanced single-replacement chemical equation:
MgCl (s) + 2Na(s) 2NaCl(s) + Mg(s)
2
Double-replacement (DR) Reaction
Where there is an exchange of ions between two compounds - YOU MUST KNOW YOUR POLYATOMIC IONS!

Products will be water, a precipitate, or a gas

AX + BY AY + BX
Steps for Writing Double-replacement Reactions
(1) Write the components of the reactants in a skeleton equation
(2) Identify the cations and the anions in each compound
(3) Pair up each cation and anion from the other compound
(4) Write the formulas for the products using the pairs from Step 3
(5) Write the complete equation for the double-replacement reaction
(6) Balance the equation
Writing Double-replacement Reaction Equations Video
Double-replacement (DR) Reaction Practice
Predict the products and then balance the following equation:
Once you have an answer compare it with someone around you.
NaCN(aq) + H SO (aq)
2
4
Double-replacement (DR) Reaction Practice
The balanced double-replacement chemical equation:
2NaCN(aq) + H SO (aq) Na SO (aq) + 2HCN(g)
2
4
2
4
Predicting Reaction Types Flow Chart
Net Ionic Equations
Definitions:
Net ionic equation
- chemical equation which includes only those compounds left after the spectator ions are eliminated
Spectator ions
- ions that show up on both sides of the reaction
Aqueous solution
- solution which contains one or more substances dissolved in water; (aq)
Solute
- what is dissolved
Solvent
- what does the dissolving (often water)
Steps for Writing Net Ionic Equations
(1) Make sure everything that is aqueous (aq) is written as its ions
Table R-8 "Solubility Guidelines" on pg. 974 will help you determine if something is soluble (aq) or not (s) - "Solubility Guidelines" and Chart are also on the back of the "Chemical Names and Formulas Lab" Product Prediction Worksheet

(2) Cancel spectator ions

(3) Write net ionic equation
Writing Net Ionic Equations Video
Net Ionic Equation Practice Problem
Write the net ionic equation for the following equation:
Once you have an answer compare it with someone around you.
HCl(aq) + LiOH(aq) H O(l) + LiCl(aq)
2
Net Ionic Equation Practice Problem
HCl(aq) + LiOH(aq) H O(l) + LiCl(aq)
2
Net Ionic Equation:
H (aq) + OH (aq) H O(l)
+
-
2
Balancing Chemical Equations with Skittles LAB
H (aq) + Cl (aq) + Li (aq) + OH (aq)
H O(l) + Li (aq) + Cl (aq)
+
-
+
-
2
+
-
Chapter 9: Net Ionic Equations Worksheet
Do one problem on whiteboard
Before you sit down pick up the "Chapter 9 - Chemical Reactions NOTES" (white) from the demo table.
Balancing Chemical Equations
IMPORTANT:
When hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, fluorine, chlorine, bromine, and iodine are not bonded to anything else in a chemical reaction they need to be written as diatomics (two atoms).
Balancing Chemical Equations
Balancing chemical equations shows that
THE LAW OF CONSERVATION OF MASS
has been obeyed (mass of reactants = mass of products)
Balancing Chemical Equations Practice Problem #1
Once you have an answer compare it with someone around you.
Write and balance the reaction between solid calcium and solid sulfur to produce solid calcium sulfide.
Balancing Chemical Equations Practice Problem #1
Write and balance the reaction between solid calcium and solid sulfur to produce solid calcium sulfide.
Ca(s) + S(s) CaS(s)
It's already balanced!
Balancing Chemical Equations Practice Problem #2
Write and balance the reaction between methane and oxygen to yield carbon dioxide and water.
Once you have an answer compare it with someone around you.
Balancing Chemical Reactions Practice Problem #2
Write and balance the reaction between methane and oxygen to yield carbon dioxide and water.
NOTE: When balancing a combustion reaction balance the Cs first, the Hs second, and the Os last.
Types of Chemical Reactions Information Scavenger Hunt
Fill in the table and then sit back down once you have finished.
online timer
2SnO(s) 2Sn(s) + O (g)
2
Na is more active/reactive than Mg so Na will end in a compound.
Chemical Names and Formulas Lab
Don't forget your diatomics!
Blood Falls on Taylor Glacier on Antarctica - created by iron (II) oxide
Before you sit down pick up the following from the green demo table:

(1) "Chemical Names and Formulas Lab" Product Prediction Worksheet (white)

(2) Chapter 9: Net Ionic Equations Worksheet (white)
"Chemical Names and Formulas Lab" Product Prediction Worksheet
Do one problem on whiteboard
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