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Linking ideas

intermediate
by

simon friend

on 2 November 2015

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Transcript of Linking ideas

Linkers
Too
goes either at the end of the sentence, or after the subject and means
as well
.
Ideas are often linked by
and.
In a list, you put a comma between each item, but not before and.
AND
Moreover
and
furthermore
add extra information to the point you are making.
Apart from
and
besides
are often used to mean
as well as,
or
in addition to
.
Apart from / besides
As well as
can be used at the beginning or the middle of a sentence
-- It means ALSO--

I like tea --
as well as
-- coffee.
As well as
"We discussed training, education and the budget."
ALSO
Too
Moreover / furthermore
I love food
,
booze
,
parties
and
sleeping
"We
also
spoke about marketing.”
"We are concerned
not only
by the costs, but
also
by the competition.”
You can use
also
with
not only
to give emphasis.
We don't usually start a sentence with
also.
If you want to start a sentence with a phrase
that means also
, you can use
In addition
, or
In addition to this…
"
As well as
the costs, we are concerned by the competition."
"We are interested in costs
as well as
the competition."
"They were concerned
too."

"I,
too,
was concerned."
"
Apart from
Rover, we are the largest sports car manufacturer."
"Besides
Rover, we are the largest sports car manufacturer."
"Marketing plans give us an idea of the potential market.
Moreover,
they tell us about the competition."
Summarizing

In short
In brief
In summary
To summarise
In a nutshell
To conclude
In conclusion
We normally use these words at the beginning of the sentence to give a summary of what we have said or written.
...Today has been a disaster.
...we will lose the war
...the company will succede in the coming quarter
Sequencing ideas
The following is a good way of starting a list.
The following
Firstly, … secondly, … finally
(or lastly) are useful ways to list ideas.
Firstly, … secondly, … finally
The former
and
the latter
are useful when you want to refer to one of two points.
The former / the latter
Giving a result
"Marketing and finance are both covered in the course.
The former
(marketing) is studied in the first term and
the latter
(finance) is studied in the final term."
It's rare to use
"fourthly",
or
"fifthly".
Instead, try the
first point, the second point, the third point
and so on.
"
The following
people have been chosen to go on the training course: N Peters, C Jones and A Owen."
"Gabi and Clara are from Brazil.
The former
is from Rio,
the later
is from a small town in the nth".
"Firstly
we'll do a the workbook,
secondly,
the test,
thirdly
a movie and
lastly
we'll eat Tim Tams".
...And the
seventh point
is that we remember our sun hats. the
eighth point
is....
"When we go to the computer room you can do any of
the following

things,
a prezi, studysmart, reading...:
Giving a reason
Since
and
as
mean
because.
Since / as
Because of
is followed by a
noun.
Because / because of
Due to
and
owing to
must be followed by a
noun.
Due to/owing
"
Due to

the rise in oil prices
, the inflation rate rose by 1.25%."
"
Owing to

the demand
, we are unable to supply all items within 2 weeks."
If you want to follow these words with a
clause
(a subject, verb and object), you must follow the words with
the fact that
.
"
Due to the fact that

oil prices have risen
, the inflation rate has gone up by 1%25."
"
Owing to the fact that

the workers have gone on strike
, the company has been unable to fulfill all its orders."
"
Because of

bad weather
, the football match was postponed."
Because
can be used at the beginning or in the middle of a sentence. For example,
"Because
it was raining, the match was postponed."
"We believe in incentive schemes,
because
we want our employees to be more productive."
"Since
the company is expanding, we need to hire more staff."
As
the company is expanding, we need to hire more staff."
So is more informal.
Therefore, so, consequently
and
as a result
are all used in a similar way.
"The company are expanding.
Therefore / So / Consequently / As a result
, they are taking on extra staff."
Contrasting ideas
While, whereas and unlike
are used to show how two things are different from each other.
While, whereas and unlike
Nevertheless
and
nonetheless
mean
in spite of that
or
anyway.
Nevertheless and nonetheless
Although, despite and in spite of
introduce an idea of contrast. With these words, you must have two halves of a sentence.
Although / despite / in spite of
But
is more informal than
however.
It is not normally used at the beginning of a sentence.
But/however
In theory… in practice…
show an unexpected result.
(It should be like this -- but actually in real life it isn't)
In theory… in practice…
"He works hard,
but
he doesn't earn much."
"He works hard.
However,
he doesn't earn much."

(However
is used at the start of a sentence)
"Although
it was cold, she went out in shorts."
"
In spite of
the cold, she went out in shorts."
Despite and in spite of
are used in the same way as
due to
and
owing to
. They must be followed by a
noun.
If you want to follow them with a
noun and a verb,
you must use
the fact that
.
"
Despite the fact that
the company was doing badly, they took on extra employees."
"The sea was cold, but he went swimming
nevertheless
." (In spite of the fact that it was cold.)
"The company is doing well.
Nonetheless,
they aren't going to expand this year."
"While
my sister has blue eyes, mine are brown."
"Taxes have gone up,
whereas
social security contributions have gone down."

"Unlike
in the UK, the USA has cheap petrol."
"
In theory
, teachers should prepare for lessons, but
in practice
, they often don't have enough time."
PRIVATE PRACTICE:
http://www.getenglishlessons.com/8079/discourse-markers-linkers-conjunctions-connectors-list-and-worksheets/


joins two similar ideas together
He lives in Victoria,
and
he studies at UVic
BUT
John is Canadian,
but
Sally is English.

joins two
contrasting
ideas
or
I could cook some supper,
or
we could order a pizza.
joins two
alternative
ideas
so
She was sick,
so
she went to the doctor.
shows that the second idea is the result of the first
yet
(meaning “but”)
He is Canadian
yet
he can't speak English.
http://welcomeaboard.free.fr/kitsitdocuments/linkwords.htm
http://home.nordnet.fr/%7Ermaufroid/pupitre/linking/whereas.htm
http://a4esl.org/q/h/lb/sobe.html
Practice because:
http://eolf.univ-fcomte.fr/uploads/ressources/grammar/08_links/01_purple-blue/01.htm
Practice but:
http://eolf.univ-fcomte.fr/uploads/ressources/grammar/08_links/01_purple-blue/03.htm
Practice:
and/but/so
:
http://eolf.univ-fcomte.fr/uploads/ressources/grammar/08_links/03_and_but_so_etc_01/01.htm
http://eolf.univ-fcomte.fr/uploads/ressources/grammar/08_links/03_and_but_so_etc_02/01.htm
http://welcomeaboard.free.fr/kitsitdocuments/linkwords.htm
Practice contrasting ideas:
http://www.bbc.co.uk/apps/ifl/worldservice/quiznet/quizengine?ContentType=text/html;quiz=136_contrast
PRACTICE:
http://www.usingenglish.com/quizzes/89.html
http://wwwedu.ge.ch/cptic/prospective/projets/anglais/exercises/although.htm
http://wwwedu.ge.ch/cptic/prospective/projets/anglais/exercises/conjunction2.htm
http://wwwedu.ge.ch/cptic/prospective/projets/anglais/exercises/conjunction3.htm
Practice however:
http://wwwedu.ge.ch/cptic/prospective/projets/anglais/exercises/conjunction3.htm
http://www.better-english.com/grammar/becauseetc.htm
http://a4esl.org/q/h/lb/stillyet.html
LINKING

IDEAS

Also is used to add an extra idea or emphasis.
(a homework Prezi)
In addition
to ice cream, we should by chocolate.
It means "
now I'm talking about the first THING i mentioned
---
and now I'm talking about the second THING
Full transcript