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watergate. i guess.
Transcript of watergate. i guess.
Watergate Scandal political scandal of the 1970's there was a break-in of the Democratic National Committee headquarters at the Watergate office complex in Washington, D.C. Break-In On the evening of June 17, 1972, Frank Wills, a security guard at the Watergate Complex, noticed tape covering the latch on locks on several doors in the complex, leaving the doors unlocked. He took off the tape, and thought nothing of it. An hour later, he discovered that someone had retaped the locks. Wills called the police and five men were arrested inside the Democratic National Committee's office. Investigation The true story began to come out immediately after the arrest were made. On June 19, 1972, it was publicly revealed that one of the Watergate burglars was a Republican Party security aide, Former Attorney General, John Mitchell. John Mitchell was at that time the head of Nixon's re-election campaign. He denied any involvement with the break-in or knowlegde of the five burglars. On August 1, a $25,000 cashiers check made out for the Nixon re-election campaign was deposited into the bank account of one of the Watergate burglars. Further investigation revealed accounts showing that still more thousands had passed through their bank and credit card accounts, supporting their travel, living expenses, and purchases, in the months leading up to their arrests. The Washington Post's staff, Carl Bernstein and Bob Woodward who were called in to work on the story. The next day, Woodward and Bernstein reported that burglar James McCord was on the payroll of President Nixon's reelection committee The next day, Nixon and chief of staff H.R. Haldeman privately discussed how to get the CIA to tell the FBI to back off from the burglary investigation. Publicly, a White House spokesman said he would not comment on "a third rate burglary." Mark Feldt, a high ranking official at the Federal Bureau of Investigation, was used as a confidential source for the Washington Post's writers. With access to FBI reports on the burglary investigation, Felt could confirm or deny what other sources were telling The Post reporters. He also could tell them what leads to pursue. His identity was promised to be kept secret and was referred to as "Deepthroat." His identity wasn't revealed for another 33 years. On September 29, 1972 it was revealed that John Mitchell, while serving as Attorney General, controlled a secret Republican fund used to finance intelligence-gathering against the Democrats. Several individual donations (totaling $89,000) were made by individuals who thought they were making private donations to the President's re-election committee. In reality these donations were being used toward a "slush" fund used for a variety of different things. On October 10, the FBI reported that the Watergate break-in was part of a massive campaign of political spying and sabotage on behalf of the officials and heads of the Nixon re-election campaign Despite these revelations, Nixon's re-election campaign was never seriously jeopardized, and on November 7 the President was re-elected in one of the biggest landslides ever in American political history. Rather than ending with the trial and conviction of the burglars, the investigations grew broader; a Senate committee chaired by Senator Sam Ervin was set up to examine Watergate and began issuing subpoenas to White House staff members. Deepthroat Carl Berstein John Woodward http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/politics/special/watergate/part1.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Watergate_scandal Watergate Hotel CREEP stands for the Committee to Reelect the President Plumbers The plumbers were formed by President Nixon after sensitive military information was leaked during his first term in office a group of people that did all the dirty work for Nixon Other plumber operations include Hunt's investigation into the Teddy Kennedy Chappequiddick affair and Liddy's investigation into reported Kennedy involvement in the assassination of South Vietnamese President Ngo Dinh Diem. The Watergate break-in was arranged by the CRP and carried out by the plumbers, under a project called Operation Gemstone Richard Nixon Although being Vice President Nixon lost in a close race to become President in 1960 to JFK. In 1972 Nixon defeated Democratic candidate George McGovern by one of the widest margins on record, but within a few months Nixon's administration was faced with the Watergate Scandal. Became president in 1968 with tension in the country because of foreign affairs. worked for the Washington Post and was called to the story about the Watergate Scandal his and Bernstein was a large part of finding the truth to the scandal also worked for the Washington Post and called to the story about the Watergate Scandal to investigate the arrest of five burglars at the Democratic National Committee offices in the Watergate office complex http://iml.jou.ufl.edu/projects/Fall06/Weiner/pages/People/plumbers.htm John Dean was a White House Counsel to United States President Richard Nixon from July 1970 until April 1973 he became deeply involved in events leading up to the Watergate burglaries and the subsequent Watergate scandal cover up referred to as "master manipulator of the cover up" by the FBI E. Gordon Liddy The former FBI agent orchestrated the Watergate break-in with E. Howard Hunt Liddy was a member of the White House "plumbers" He was convicted for his role in the burglary E. Howard Hunt Hunt helped organize the break-in at the Democratic National Committee at the Watergate The discovery of Hunt's White House office phone number in an address book belonging to one of the burglars helped investigators Hunt was convicted of burglary, conspiracy and wiretapping in connection with the Watergate burglary. He served 33 months in prison Alexander Butterfield He served as the deputy assistant to President Richard Nixon from 1969 until 1973 He was a key figure in the Watergate scandal, but was not personally involved in any wrongdoing, and was not investigated nor prosecuted Archibald Cox He became known as the first special prosecutor for the Watergate scandal Cox learned with the rest of America about the secret taping system installed in the White House on orders from President Richard M. Nixon During the next few months, Cox and U.S. District Judge John J. Sirica struggled with the Nixon Administration over whether Nixon could be compelled to yield those tapes in response to a grand jury subpoena. When Sirica ordered Nixon to comply with the committee's and Cox's demands, the President offered Cox a compromise: instead of producing the tapes, he would allow the Senator John Stennis (Democrat -- Mississippi) to listen to the tapes Cox rejected this compromise on Friday, October 19, 1973. On Saturday, October 20, 1973, Cox had a press conference to explain his decision Saturday Night Massacre Leon Jaworski was the second Special Prosecutor during the Watergate Scandal Jaworski was appointed to that position on November 1, 1973, soon after the Saturday Night Massacre of October 19 and October 20, 1973 that resulted in the dismissal of special prosecutor Archibald Cox. was the term given by political commentators to U.S. President Richard Nixon's executive dismissal of independent special prosecutor Archibald Cox On Saturday, Oct. 20, Nixon ordered Attorney General Richardson to fire Cox. Richardson resigned rather than carry out the order, as did his top deputy Williams Ruckleshaus General Robert Bork became the acting attorney general and he dismissed Cox. The special prosecutor's office was abolished White House Taping System are a collection of recordings of conversations between U.S. President Richard Nixon and various White House staff starting in February 1971 and lasting until July 18, 1973 In addition to the line-taps placed on the telephones, small lavalier microphones were installed at various locations around the rooms. The recordings were produced on as many as nine Sony TC-800B open-reel tape recorders While the recorders were turned off shortly after the Watergate scandal hearings, the system was not removed until 1974, after Nixon left office Only a few White House employees had ever been aware that this system existed "I am not a crook" speech speech Nixon made to the country denying his involvement in the Watergate Scandal 18 1/2 minutes of missing tapes it is a 18 and half minute gap of tape missing The recording was of a conversation between President Nixon and Chief of Staff H.R. "Bob" Haldeman President's attorneys had decided that there was "no innocent explanation" they could offer. Rose Mary Woods was reviewing tapes of the June 20, 1972 oval office recordings, tape 342, that had been recorded just 3 days after 5 men with ties to President Nixon's re-election campaign had been arrested while trying to bug the phones in the offices of the Democratic Party's National Committee at the Watergate hotel in Washington DC. Ms. Woods said Nixon came in and was "pushing the buttons back and forth," when tape must have been accidently erased. Chief of staff Alexander Haig says one theory is that "some sinister force" erased the segment. Nixon refused to release them, citing his executive privilege as President of the United States, and ordered Cox to drop his subpoena. In this conversation, Dean summarizes many aspects of the Watergate case, and then focuses on the subsequent coverup, describing it as a "cancer on the presidency" A taped conversation that was crucial to the case against President Nixon took place between the President and his counsel, John Dean, on March 21, 1973 Impeachment Hearings Supreme Court Decision The issue of access to the tapes went to the Supreme Court On July 24, 1974, in United States v. Nixon ruled unanimously that claims of executive privilege over the tapes were void, and they ordered the president to give them to the special prosecutor On July 30, 1974, President Nixon complied with the order and released the subpoenaed tapes. On February 6, 1974, the House of Representatives passed House Resolution 803 by 410-4 to authorise the Judiciary Committee to consider impeachment proceedings against Nixon In 1974, the House Judiciary Committee recommended Articles of Impeachment to the full House of Representatives, but Nixon resigned before the House voted on the Articles. Political investigations began in February 1973 when the Senate established a Committee to investigate the Watergate scandal The public hearings of the Committee were sensational, including the evidence of John Dean, Nixon's former White House Counsel. The Committee also uncovered the existence of the secret White House tape recordings, sparking a major political and legal battle between the Congress and the President. Smoking Gun Tape On August 5, 1974, the previously unknown audio tape from June 23, 1972, was released Recorded only a few days after the break-in, it documented Nixon and Haldeman meeting in the Oval Office and formulating a plan to block investigations by having the CIA falsely claim to the FBI that national security was involved Prior to the release of this tape, President Nixon had denied political motivations in his instructions to the CIA, and claimed he had no knowledge prior to March 21, 1973 of any involvement by senior campaign officials such as John Mitchell. The contents of this tape persuaded President Nixon's own lawyers, Fred Buzhardt and James St. Clair, "The tape proved that the President had lied to the nation, to his closest aides, and to his own lawyers – for more than two years." Resignation Throughout this time, Nixon still denied any involvement in the ordeal. However, after being told by key Republican Senators that enough votes existed to remove him, Nixon decided to resign Pardon Nixon was succeeded by Vice President Gerald Ford, who on September 8, 1974, issued a full and unconditional pardon of President Nixon, immunizing him from prosecution for any crimes he had "committed or may have committed or taken part in" as President Though President Nixon's resignation prompted Congress to drop the impeachment proceedings, criminal prosecution was still a possibility Bibliography. http://watergate.info/impeachment/Full transcript