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The Great Depression and Dustbowls
Transcript of The Great Depression and Dustbowls
where wind and severe weather mostly occurred in the 1930s. The Cause of the Dust Bowl: The term Dust Bowl refers to an environmental disaster during the Great Depression in the United States. As a result of poor land management and terrible drought, winds carried off the topsoil of a large area in the southern Great Plains. The Dust Bowl spread across five states. Before The Dust Bowl: Stock Market Crash
• Economy rapidly grew between 1928 and 1929
• Investors’ confidence in stock market also grew
• Some people rationally bought stock at progressively higher prices, expecting earnings on their investment to justify the paid price
• Stock prices, however, were more rapidly rising than dividends
• The peak of the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) was in early September of 1929, then began to forego a heavy decline
• The market had performed erratically throughout the first three weeks of October
• On October 23rd, 1929, prices dropped sharply to levels that had been reached towards the beginning of the year October 24th, titled, “Black Thursday,” saw 12.9 million shares traded by panicking shareholders
• A group of bankers purchased $125 million worth of stock to try to rally the market, but only slightly delayed the decline
• October 29th, 1929, titled, “Black Tuesday,” held a record volume 16.4 million securities traded on the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE)
• The stock market continued to decline up to November 14th
• The crash lasted for about three weeks
• Over this period of time, the average value of stocks had dropped by over 50 percent American farmers in the Great Plains enjoyed steadily rising levels of prosperity. Once the Dust Bowls came, farmers lost all their crops.
The states included in the Great Plains are:
Wyoming Dust Bowl During the early 1930s, drought settled over the Dakotas, Montana, Oklahoma, and parts of Kansas, Colorado, and Texas. Now the dry earth and wind combined to create black blizzards. Clouds of blowing dust darkened the skies at midday and piled up in drifts alongside the roads. As winds rocked farm homes, dust blew through and covered everything and everyone in gritty layers. No crops grew, and no harvest meant no money and no farm. The Great Depression: an economic crisis beginning with the stock market crash in the 1900s
Dust Bowl: 97 million acres of land that was mostly destroyed by wind erosion and drought Terms to Know •The storms began in spring of 1931
•The Dust made everything difficult
•Storms have blocked roads and railroads
•It was hard to breathe
•Most of the time dust storms were severe, residents decided to protect themselves by staying inside and sealing windows with tape and sticky material
•Keyholes were covered by wet rags and paper to prevent dirt from entering their homes
•People were advised that they were to stay away from freeways because of the poor visibility and electricity
•People began to think of conservation methods to control the soil The Storms of the Great Plains •Financial aid was needed for farmers
•President Franklin Delano Roosevelt told the agency to experiment if a major tree planting program would reduce the wind erosion
•Had an idea of planting trees around the storms to reduce massive effect of dust storms
•The Soil Erosion Service (SES) provided $million dollars to support a conservation program
•The Soil Conservation Service taught farmers proper soil conservation techniques Soil Conservation
Federal Relief •The Agricultural Adjustment Administration (AAA) was a government program that provided relief from the Depression and droughts
•Congress passes Agricultural Adjustment Act in 1933, the act sought to provide cash benefits for farmers
•After signing the contract, farmers needed to plow a portion of their land with growing crops and decrease the production
•This Act was later declared unconstitutional by Congress in 1936
•The 87,794 farmers signed the contract and plowed under the requirement of $15,792,287 in 1933 •Wheat and Cotton prices fell from over production
•Many farmers migrated in big groups
•Thousands of farmers migrated to the western parts of California Migration •The weather helped increase the speed of growth resulting in protecting the soil against the wind
•The storms fade away
•Farmers are taught the techniques to conserve the loose soil
•They know how to protect their plants to prevent this devastation Afterwords Works Cited HURT, R. DOUGLAS. "Dust Bowl." Encyclopedia of the Great Depression. Ed. Robert S. McElvaine. Vol. 1. New York: Macmillan Reference USA, 2004. 249-257. Gale U.S. History In Context. Web. 2 Oct. 2012. "Dust Bowl." American History. ABC-CLIO, 2012. Web. 2 Oct. 2012.
"Dust Bowl." Image. National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration. American History. ABC-CLIO, 2012. Web. 2 Oct. 2012.
FEARON, PETER. "Stock Market Crash (1929)." Encyclopedia of the Great Depression. Ed. Robert S. McElvaine. Vol. 2. New York: Macmillan Reference USA, 2004. 935-941. Gale U.S. History In Context. Web. 2 Oct. 2012.