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Transcript of American Realism
2. Attack upon romanticism and romantic writers.
3. Emphasis upon morality often self-realized and upon an examination of idealism.
4. Concept of realism as a realization of democracy. Literary Works
Writers The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn Biography of Mark Twain Originally known as Langhorn Clemens
Born in Florida, Missouri 30 November 1835 to John Marshal and Jane Lampton Clemens
Dropped out of school at 13 to become a printer's apprentice. His apprenticeship lasted approximately two years.
Gained the name Mark Twain while working on the St. Louis River
Published his first book "The Innocents Abroad" in 1869. He later went on to product 28 books and numerous short stories.
Died April 21 1910 Basic Information Literary works "The adventures of Tom Sawyer"(1876)
"The prince and the Pauper"(1882)
"Life on the Mississippi"(1883)
"The adventures of Huckleberry Finn"(1884)
"A connecticut Yankee in King Arthur´s Court"(1889) (1865-1915) - Realism is the presentation in art of the details of actual life. Realism was also a literary movement that began during the nineteenth century and stressed the actual as opposed to the imagined or the fanciful. The Realists tried to write truthfully and objectively about ordinary characters in ordinary situations. They reacted against Romanticism, rejecting heroic, adventurous, unusual, or unfamiliar subjects. The Realists, in turn, were followed by the Naturalists. American realism grew from the work of local-color writers such as Bret Harte and Sarah Orne Jewett and is evident in the writings of major figures such as Mark Twain and Henry James What was the American Realism period? 1865- Civil War ends and Lincoln is assassinated.
1869- First transcontinental railroad.
1876- Alexander Graham Bell invents the telephone.
1879- Thomas Edison invents the light bulb.
1883- Sir Hiram Maxim invents the machine gun.
1888- Eatsman’s Kodak Camera starts amatuer photogrophy.
1895- Wilhelm Röntgen discovered x-rays.
1898- Hawaii annexed.
1903- Wright Brothers invent first plane.
1905- Albert Einstein proposes Special Theory of Relativity.
1908- GE patens the electrical toaster Important Events in 1865-1915 Principles and Characteristics Principles Character is more important than action and plot; complex ethical choices are often the subject.
Characters appear in their real complexity of temperament and motive; they are in explicable relation to nature, to each other, to their social class, to their own past.
Class is important.
Events will usually be plausible.
Realistic novels avoid the sensational, dramatic elements of naturalistic novels and romances.
Diction is natural vernacular, not heightened or poetic; tone may be comic, satiric, or matter-of-fact.
Objectivity in presentation becomes increasingly important
Characteristics This book is about a young boy, Huck, and his search for freedom and adventure. The Mississippi River is the backdrop of the entire book.
It is Huck who gives the book style. The River gives the book its form. But for the River, the book might be only a sequence of adventures with a happy ending. His book revolves around the youthful adventures of the novel's schoolboy protagonist, Thomas Sawyer, whose reputation precedes him for causing mischief and strife.
Tom Sawyer Realism
Realism is a time period in which previous theories were questioned. This era aimed to interpret the actualities of any aspect of life. It was free from prejudice, idealism or romantic color. It is in complete opposition of the basics of Romanticism. Realism's opposite romanticism is more concerned with emotion than rationality. It looked more on the individual than on their society. It was a period that encouraged the expression of personal emotion. Romanticism Romanticism vs Realism
Characters may be “larger than life” -- e.g. Rip Van Winkle, Ichabod Crane, Brom Bones, Natty Bumppo, Ralph Hepdurn, Bartleby
Plot contains unusual events, mystery, or high adventure -- e.g. Poe's stories, Melville’s Typee
Ending is often happy
The language is often “literary” (expanded, formal, etc.)
Settings often made up; if actual settings are used, the focus is on the exotic, strange, mysterious.
Writer is interested in history or legend -- e.g. Irving, Poe Bret Harte American realism took place between the late 19th century to the early 20th century in the wake of the Civil war. The art and literature of the period was a comtemporary view of what was happening, it allowed them to define what was real.
The Realism period brought about the blues and jazz styles of music as well as the emergence of African American artists in popularity. A few artists of the time were James Allen Bland, C.A. White, W.C. Handy, and John Philip Sousa. 1836-1902
Was born in Albany, New York.
He moved on to California and found
work in journalism, first as
typesetter, then as an editor, and
finally as a writer. Bret Harte's literary output improved while he was in Europe and helped to revive his popularity. The Outcasts of Poker Flat and Tennessee's Partner join The Luck of Roaring Camp on the list of his influential works. Sarah Orne Jewett She was born in the village of South Berwick, on
the main coast. She loved her father, a doctor,
At the age of fouteen, started writing sketches
and narratives of New England village life Kate Chopin Hamlin Garland
1860-1940 William Dean Howells Henry James Born on April 15, 1843, in New York City, Henry James became one of his generation's most well-known writers and remains so to this day for such works as The Portrait of a Lady and The Turn of the Screw. Having lived in England for 40 years, James became a British subject in 1915, the year before his death. He died on February 28, 1916, in London, England. William Dean Howells (March 1, 1837 – May 11, 1920) was an American realist author and literary critic. He was known for the Christmas story "Christmas Every Day" and the novel The Rise of Silas Lapham.
Mr. Howells has written a long series of poems, novels, sketches, stories, and essays, and has been perhaps the most continuous worker in the literary art among American writers. He was born at Martin's Perry, Belmont County, Ohio, March 1, 1837, and the experiences of his early life have been delightfully told by himself in A Boy's Town, My Year in a Log Cabin, and My Literary Passions American author Kate Chopin (1850–1904) wrote two published novels and about a hundred short stories in the 1890s. Most of her fiction is set in Louisiana and most of her best-known work focuses on the lives of sensitive, intelligent women.
Her short stories were well received in her own time and were published by some of America's most prestigious magazines—Vogue, the Atlantic Monthly, Harper's Young People, Youth's Companion, and the Century. A few stories were syndicated by the American Press Association. Her stories appeared also in her two published collections, Bayou Folk (1894) and A Night in Acadie (1897)- BACKGROUND Puritan – (1472-1750) – Most of these are histories, journals, personal poems, sermons, and diaries. Jonathan Edwards continues to be recognized from this period.
Enlightenment – (1750-1800) –Genres included political documents, speeches, and letters. Benjamin Franklin is typical of this period.
Romanticism – (1800-1840) - Romanticism was a literary and artistic movement of the nineteenth century that arose in reaction against eighteenth-century. Cooper, Poe, Thoreau, Emerson, Dickinson, Hawthorne, and Melville. Hamlin Garland was born in Wisconsin(1860). His family were farmers. During his childhood moved from Wisconsin to Iowa and later to South Dakota.
Unable to afford a university education, Garland moved to Boston where he spent 14 hours a day reading in the public library. He was a brilliant teacher, Garland became a touring lecturer where he gave public talks on American, French and German authors.
Characters resemble ordinary people --
e.g. Huck Finn, Tom Sawyer.
Plot is developed with ordinary events and circumstances
Ending might be realisitic.
Writer uses ordinary speech and dialect -- common vernacular (the everyday language spoken by a people)
Settings actually exist or have actual prototypes
Writer is interested in recent or contemporary life Truth
Focuses on directing attention to the problems at hand Emotion
Escape from reality