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Stage/Phase Theories of Development; What are the flaws in this lens?
Transcript of Stage/Phase Theories of Development; What are the flaws in this lens?
-Artistic behaviors were "selected for" survival.
-Those early humans who engaged in art-like behaviors creating rituals, special objects and images to make visible their beliefs and values, were more likely to survive than those who did not.
-Doing so created a sense of group "oneheartedness".
What are kindergarten children doing when they draw?
Developing a repertoire of marks
Theory of Art
Arts in Infancy
What does that interpretation tell us about how we view development of artistic thought through later childhood and into adolescence?
...from the moment when the infant achieves hand-eye coordination and realizes that they are responsible for the markings that mysteriously appear before their eyes, they also learn that they have created “’something where nothing was before’.
-Human beings are born prepared to engage in a multi-sensory world.
Is drawing development
an orderly process comprised
of recognizable phases in pictorial thinking and
problem solving, or is it
merely the product of
Can drawing development be described in terms of stages in logical thinking?
What role does talent play in this development?
What propels the changes observed over time and with experience, and what is the impact of the medium?
Questions raised are intimately related to how we conceive of the nature of progress in drawing.
INFLUENTIAL THEORIES OF DEVELOPMENT
Vienna 1900s Art classes for children.
Included the teaching of drawing as a means of self-expression.
Rejected teaching methods for teaching the rendering of space i.e. perspective.
Klee, Picasso, Kandinsky, Miro and others rejected the naturalistic traditions of art.
Childhood was viewed as a period of authenticity, inspiration and truth.
Roots of 19th & early 20th C fascination with child art lie in the Romantic Movement
This concept of childhood implied an unspoiled, authentic vision with direct access to the sensory world.
This vision led to innovations in the teaching of children--protect this innocence from the corrupting inpact of civilization & its social conventions
*Presents drawing as a
Brings Cizek's stage theory to America
in the 1940s
& growth of 2 children Sophie & Emile
The Romantic Movement exhaulted
the naivite of the child
CIZEK (stages based on his classes
Scribbling and smearing
rhythm of spirit and hand
Introduction of types
Differentiation of color;
form and space
Pure unity of gestalten
LOWENFELD - 1947 wrote
Creative and Mental Growth
Scribbling- disordered, longitudinal, circular, named scribble
Crisis of Adolescence
Artistic Developmental Stages
Research focus on the artistic-aesthetic development of children & adolescents.
"Beginnings of Artistic Language"
"The First Visual Symbols"
"Visual Events" -symbol making stage
From Imagination and Memory"
Ideas in Search of Forms"
How are we all alike?
Are there multiple & divergent routes to artistic accomplishments or is there one steady path toward ever increasing optical realism in the depiction of 3D space?
How do we interpret the beginnings
of children's art?
Concluded that children were not
less intelligent than adults,
they simply think differently.
INTRODUCED IDEA OF
Children are not just short adults!
Who else thinks
about growth &
and social development
Key Assumptions of
-One stage prepares ground for the
-Progress is from simple to complex.
-Humans are both symbol-users and
-The senses and the intellect are
interconnected, not separate.
-Drawing is an act of intellegence;
based on problem solving behaviors.
-Drawing makes thoughts visible.
the whole learner
-Art must be viewed as
an inherent universal (or biological)
trait of the human species...
how it all starts
the human infant journeys
through to autonomy
Idea of childhood as
unique & special
Intellectual development in
the first five years of life.
Authored "Developing Minds" article series
in School Arts
The order of the articles corresponds to
stages and phases of Lowenfeld.
Current thought places more emphasis on
progression than age.
Attached an age range to the
An economic equivalent for
what they know of the world
Organizing the picture plane
Adding detail; elaborating
YouTube video Child Development
birth through age three
The young child brings to school many natural propensities:
-a love of mark making
-an interest in tools
-a desire to make, construct,
-an affinity for storytelling
-a love of imaginative play
-and the understanding that marks carry meaning
outcomes of actions on materials
inner sensations & experiences evoked in them
Young children come to recognize...
a direct connection
What happens to these inherent human propensities depends a great deal on
the choices teachers make
of the Learner,
Art, and Art Education