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Formation of the Earth

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Clare-Erin soccer

on 14 October 2014

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Transcript of Formation of the Earth

LT#4: I can explain the theory of the formation of the Earth
How long ago did the Earth begin to form?


What role did mass and gravity have in forming the Earth?
Gravity attracted the matter from the solar nebula together and it began to spin, forming the sun in the center. The solar winds swept away the lighter elements (like hydrogen and helium) which have less mass, leaving only the heavy and rocky elements with more mass to form smaller terrestrial worlds that would eventually grow into planets of the solar system through the process of accretion.
The more dense materials sunk to the center of Earth, and the lighter ones made up the crust and early atmosphere. This is the beginning of the formation of the layers.
How did accretion work to form out Earth?
Accretion is the gradual growth/
increase of the build up of matter. Accretion has to do with the formation of the Earth, because the different dust and rocky elements of the solar nebula built-up on each other, and accreted. The more dense materials sank to the bottom.
How did Earth get it's water?
Water could not have started out on earth because it would have turned into water vapor from the hot sun and been swept away by solar winds.
Other objects/bodies like comets in space, which already obtained water or ice due to the combining of hydrogen and oxygen, may have collided with Earth and gave us water.
Scientists also think that water may have been the result of volcanic eruptions. When the first volcanoes erupted, they let out steam creating clouds which resulted in Earth's first rain fall that went on for thousands of years.
Formation of the Earth

Scientists conclude that earth formed approximately 4.6 billion years ago, and at first was a cloud of dust, rock, and gas called the solar nebula.
How did Earth get it's atmosphere?
An early, dense atmosphere erupted from inside Earth in the first 500 million of it's formation. Hydrogen, water vapor, methane, and carbon oxides were released through volcanoes which created the atmosphere. The condensation of the water vapor formed clouds, rain, and oceans.
Strange theories that people actually believe about the earth
Lemuria and Atlantis Theory
Many people believe that there was a landmass connecting Africa and India called Lemuria. This is believed because lemur fossils were found only in Madagascar and India, but not Africa and the Middle East. Lemuria is like Atlantis, but much more well known. It was discovered by Philip Sclater. He believed that because there were only fossils in Madagascar and India that there had to be something missing to the puzzle such as a missing continent called Lemuria.
Geoterrapinism Theory
According to some, we are living on the back of a giant sea turtle.
This myth was brought to public attention in the 17th century after a man named Jasper Danckaerts had an encounter with a Native American tribe who believed this. It is also a myth from the Chinese and Indian culture as well.
Time Cube Theory
Have you ever suspected that maybe there are 4 days happening at the same time?
As recently as 1997, a man named Gene Ray decided to ignore all the laws of physics and declare that each day is actually four days happening at the same time.He says that this is because Earth has four different time points: Midday, Midnight, Sun-up, and Sun-down. Apparently, 4 days in one in the only logical explanation and has nothing to do with Earth's natural rotation or that the sun hits different parts of the globe at different times. Okay then...
John Symmes's Hollow Earth Theory
Believed by many people, the Earth is known to be hollowed out and in the center lies the solar system. John Symmes was a U.S. army general in the war of 1812 and he believed that the Earth was hollow. He believed that if you look up at the sky you are actually looking out into the center of the Earth.
What if I told you the Earth was hollow....
Have you heard of Lemuria and Atlantis?
LT#5: I Can Explain the different layers of the Earth and their Characteristics.
By: Clare and Erin
The Crust
The crust is the layer of ground we stand on. It is rocky and brittle and is made up of loose materials such as rock and soil. It is 0-19km deep but is much thinner below the ocean. There are two different types of crust, the Continental Crust (carries land) and the Oceanic Crust (carries water). The outermost temperature of the crust varies depending on where it is. For example if it were in the Dessert it would be hotter then if it was in Antarctica. As you reach deeper in the crust the temperature starts to rise from 500-1000 degrees Celsius. It also has a density of 2.7-3.
The Mantle
The mantle is the second layer of the Earth, below the crust. There are even different layers within the mantle. The first 80.4 kilometers are hard rock, with hot molten rock below it for another 241.4 kilometers, followed by more solid rock. It has a total depth of 2,8900 kilometers, making it the thickest layer of the Earth! It is composed of iron, magnesium, aluminum, silicone, oxygen, and silicate compounds. The mantle has a temperature of about 1,000 degrees C, and when the hot, molten rock seeps through the Earth's crust, it creates volcanic eruptions. This layer of the Earth makes up 67.3% of Earth's mass and has a density of 3.3-5.7.
In 2012 scientists began to plan a $1 billion dollar mission to try and drill into the Pacific Ocean to reach the Earth's mantle. This will help give us more evidence to the theory of the formation of Earth.
Outer Core
The outer core is the only all-liquid layer of the Earth. It is made up of mostly molten iron and nickel and is about 2300km thick. The outer core makes up 30.8% of the Earth's mass and is 3700 degrees C. It is the maintainer of the Earth's magnetic field.
Inner Core
The inner core is a solid sphere in the middle of Earth made up of iron and nickel alloy. It is 1200km thick and 1200km in diameter. The Inner core makes up 1.7% of Earth's mass, and is approximately the same temperature as the sun: 5400 degrees C.
Recently, scientists are beginning to realize that the inner core may be softer than we think
How Earth's Layers Formed
After the creation of earth it was very hot but as it cooled down the layers of the earth formed due to the density differences. The heavier elements sank to the middle creating the inner and outer core as the lighter elements stayed at the top to create the mantle and crust.
LT #6: I can give evidence for how scientists defend and support their ideas
How do scientists know about the different layers of the Earth?
Scientists learn about the different layers of the Earth by studying seismic waves made by earthquakes throughout the Earth with a seismograph. They can tell the density of the layers by the arrival and the "sets" the waves came in. The process works some types of rocks in the Earth can slow down, speed up, or stop the seismic waves.
What evidence do scientists have to back up the theory of how water came to earth through comets?
Originating form the Kuiper Belt, Comet Hartley 2 is known to have brought water with the same chemicals as our oceans. It had the same ratio of hydrogen and deuterium as Earth's oceans. Scientists found that comets from the Oort Cloud had different water content then the ones from the Kuiper Belt. It is believed that comets like Hartley 2 from the Kuiper Belt may have collided with Earth and brought water that now create today's oceans.
What evidence do we have of how our atmosphere was formed?
Scientists believe that the early atmosphere was formed by gases erupting out of volcanoes, and plants giving oxygen through photosynthesis. This is a strong theory because scientist know that the same process continues today. When a volcano erupts, it adds to the atmosphere. We also know that there were many volcanic eruptions during the birth of Earth, because the Earth at first was a fiery ball of molten rock.
Additional Questions
How did the oceans get its salt?
Water from the ocean evaporates, then rains down on land and creates rivers. As the rivers flow over land, substances like salt dissolve into the water and are carried out to sea.
How was the moon formed?
One theory of the formation of the moon, is that it was a piece of the Earth that broke off in a collision.
What year did life begin to form?
Scientists believe that life started to form 1.3 billion years after formation of the Earth during what is know as the Archean period. The first form of life was bacteria; it could service in highly toxic environments.
Gravity is the force that attracts
two objects together.
Mass is the amount of atoms/"stuff"
that makes up its object.
More weight = more mass.
Different elements from outer space are colliding with the early form of Earth and building up on each other.
Then 1 billion years ago, early aquatic organisms called blue-green algae began using photosynthesis in which solar energy was used to split H2o and Co2 and recombine them to form oxygen . As oxygen in the atmosphere increased, the Co2 amount decreased.
Lemur image
Lemur image
Equipment that will be used
to drill into the mantle
Molten iron and nickel
Earth cooling and hardening.
This is a seismograph.
This is a satellite image of comet Hartley 2 from the Kuiper Belt from outer space.
Full transcript