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The Second Wave of Feminism - (my version)

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Sofia Azizan

on 11 June 2013

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Transcript of The Second Wave of Feminism - (my version)

The Feminist Movement
During the 1960s and the 1970s. Background “Cult of Domesticity” Expectations for women throughout the 50s and 60s. Idealized women as housewives and mothers, the caretaker of the home. Women Entering the Work Force Women made up nearly half of the work force (47%). Often excluded from prestigious and higher-paying professions. Usually paid less for the same work and performance. Opportunities for Women Women often lacked the same legal status as men:
For example, they often had more difficulty obtaining financial credit Had much more difficulties in filing for divorce. Political Opportunities Very few or little women were able to participate in politics. Men had much greater political dominance than women; women had very little say in decisions that impacted them. Factors Roots The Other Movements Many feminist activists had already
participated in other movements,
such as the civil rights movement,
the college student leftist movement,
and the anti-war movement.

These other movements would play a key role in:
Giving women valuable experience and skills
Creating a civic environment to protest in
Building social networks between feminists Sofia Azizan
Peter Duong
Victoria Nguyen After the feminist movement was already established, feminists continued to build links to other movements. For example, African American activists formed the National Black Feminist Organization. Oral Contraception The introduction of oral contraception ("the pill") allowed millions of women to pursue activities outside the home without being interrupted by pregnancy. Other Factors Declining fertility rates
Changing marital rates
Rising aspirations of middle class white women
Growing importance of college education
Influence of state policies on women The New Left Many feminists had previously been involved in the New Left. However, they were treated condescendingly by their male peers for trying to introduce women's issues into the New Left. As a result, feminist broke off from the New Left and other movements that pushed them to the side in order to form their own movement. Legislation 1963, Esther Saperstein introduced a bill into the state legislature to create a Commission on the Status of Women.
The Kennedy administration has it established.
The commission’s reports highlighted the problems of of women in the workplace and helped create networks of feminist activists, who would lobby Congress for women’s legislation. The Commission on the Status of Women Equal Pay Act In 1963, the Equal Pay Act
passes. In most cases,
it outlawed paying men
more than women for the same job. Title VII In 1964, the Civil Rights Act
passes with an amendment, Title
VII, outlawing discrimination by
private employers not only on the
basis of color, race, religion, and
national origin, but gender as well. Title IX In 1972, Title IX of the
Educational Amendments
prohibits federally funded
schools from discriminating
against females in nearly all
aspects of their operations,
from admissions to athletics. Rape Treatment Center Act In 1974, the Rape Treatment
Center Act established rape
treatment centers in hospitals. Cases Roe vs. Wade Supreme Court rules that state governments could not regulate abortion during the first three months of pregnancy, a time interpreted to being within a woman’s constitutional right to privacy.
During the second three months, states could regulate abortion based on the health of the mother.
During the final three months, states could ban abortion except in cases of a medical emergency. Reed vs. Reed Frontiero vs. Richardson The Supreme Court
challenges sex
discrimination in
legislation and
employment. Key Feminist Organizations The Formation of NOW Women's Liberation June 1966: Betty Friedan, the author
of “The Feminist Mystique,” co-founds
the National Organization for Women
(NOW) after the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) fails to protect women from discrimination
in the workplace. One of the most prominent feminist organizations of its time, NOW focused on gaining equality for women in the workplace, denouncing issues such as the exclusion of women from certain professions and the practice of paying women less than me for the same job.
They also demanded greater educational opportunities for women, and as a whole sought to open the prevailing system for women’s participation on a public, political level. They created their own Bill of Rights, demanding:
Passage of the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA)
Maternity rights in employment and social security benefits
Equal job training opportunities
Women’s rights to control their own reproductive capacities, among others. "The Feminist Mystique" Betty Friedan criticized society’s
expectations of women’s duties
as housewives and mothers in her
book, “The Feminist Mystique” (1962).
She and her book are credited with
launching the subsequent “second
wave” of feminism, another chapter
in the long battle for equality. The sixties saw the rise of a new-wave feminist movement called the “Women’s Liberation” movement.
Followers of this movement tended to be younger and more radical than those of NOW’s generation.
They argued that women suffered personal and political oppression in a male dominated society.
Believed that the only way to fight it was through radical alteration of prevailing economic, social, and political structures. Significant Women's Liberation groups included... New York
Radical Women Included prominent feminists
like Shulamith Firestone, Carol
Hanisch, and Robin Morgan,
who would later go on to form
WITCH (Women’s International
Terrorist Conspiracy From Hell). Redstockings Radical feminist group,
started in NY after the
dissolving of the New
York Radical Women. Bread and Roses Feminist group in
Boston who had more
of a socialist feminist
view. •Female Liberation Another Boston group,
who launched the feminist publication, “No More
Fun and Games.” Chicago Women’s Liberation Union One of the earliest women’s liberation groups, the CWLU was a "consciousness raising" group formed to raise awareness of women's oppression. Womanhouse Womanhouse was a feminist art collaboration and an art experiment that addressed the experiences of women. 21 art students turned an abandoned house in LA into an exhibit in 1972, introducing the public to feminist art. Coalition of Labor
Union Women The CLUW was formed to
give union women access
to leadership positions to
help union women. Jane An underground feminist
organization who provided
abortions while they were
still illegal in the state of
Illinois. What tactics did the feminists use? Class action lawsuits Lobbying Congress Publicizing women’s issues
through the media Gloria Steinem, a feminist
writer, first publishes
Ms. Magazine in 1972, expanding the movement’s audience to the general
public at a national level. Formal complaints Hearings "Speak-Outs" Feminists staged their own
hearings where women could
publicly speak out about their
issues. These speak-outs raised
public awareness of crucial
women’s issues such as abortion
and rape, giving the public insight
and raising public sympathy. New York Abortion
Speakout, 1969 Radical feminist group
Redstockings organizes
speakout where women
could publicly talk about
their experiences with
then-illegal abortions. Protests Miss America Protest,
September 1968 New York Radical Women organize demonstration criticizing the pageant’s judgment and objectification of women. The protest receives lots of media coverage and introduces the public to the Women's Liberation movement. NOW's Senate Hearing Protest February 1970: NOW
disrupts a US Senate
hearing to call attention
to the ERA. Ladies’ Home Journal Sit-In March 1970: A coalition of
feminists from various groups
march into the Ladies’ Home
Journal building and take over
the editor’s office until he agrees
to let them produce part of
an upcoming issue. Women’s Strike
for Equality August 26, 1970: nationwide
strike occurs, where women use various tactics to draw attention to the ways they were treated unfairly.
August 26 has since been declared
Women’s Equality Day. Take Back The Night 1976—present: annual events
of communal demonstration
and empowerment that include
rallies, vigils, speeches, and
other activities to draw attention
to violence against women and
“Reclaim the night” for them. "Consciousness raising" Women gather in small
groups to discuss topics
such a sex, family life,
work, etc. from their own
personal perspectives. Key Beliefs "The personal is
political" Women’s personal issues
are also often political issues;
what happened to individual
women also mattered in a
larger sense. The
Pro-Woman Line Women should not
be blamed for their
own oppression. Sisterhood The connection of women
who are not biologically related
but are bonded in solidarity.
Implies that women relate
to one another in ways that
are distinct from how they
relate to men. Comparable
worth Equal pay for work
of equal value; pay
equity between the sexes. Abortion On
Demand A pregnant woman should
be able to access an abortion
at her request, i.e. without a
waiting period, without having
to prove special circumstances
(rape), without having to travel,
and with no further cost-prohibitive restrictions. Radical feminism Focuses on patriarchy’s
oppression of women.
Opposes existing political
and social organization in
general because it is inherently
tied to patriarchy. However, it
is NOT man-hating—it opposes
patriarchy itself, but not men as a
whole. Socialist
feminism Connects the oppression
of women to other
oppression in society,
such as racism and
economic injustice. Ecofeminism
(ecological feminism) Connects behavior that
oppresses women with
behavior that harms the
environment. How was the movement divided? The second wave of feminism was a
very diverse movement. Activists were
divided between the older and younger generations, the upper and lower social
classes, conservatives and radicals, race,
and many other factors. What were some issues that the feminists disagreed on? Pornography Many argued that it
objectified women as
mere sex objects. Others
believed it was good for
female sexual empowerment
and sexual liberation. Marriage Some felt that women
essentially became the
possessions of men as
they became wives. There
were other controversies
over marriage as well, such
as the issue of women having
to give up their maiden name. Expectations
of Society How much should
women expect from
the government? From
capitalism? From men? Gender Equality vs. Gender Differences Some followed a feminism
of gender equality, e.g. full
female military service, while
others followed a feminism of
gender difference, e.g. maternity
leave and other special workplace
protections. The Defeat of the ERA
(and the end of an era)
most agreed on taking a pro-choice stance
when it came to abortion; most regarded the
law as the key weapon against gender discrimination. However... The Equal Rights Amendment, originally proposed by Alice Paul in 1923, managed to pass both houses of Senate in 1972. It was up to the states now for ratification. The ERA hence would become one of the largest issues of the movement, as feminists raced desperately to raise support for it. If it became part of the Constitution, it would be their ultimate weapon against gender discrimination. However, a powerful anti-feminist backlash began to grow... Phyllis Schlafly, a
strong conservative
activist, raised a strong
to the ERA. She argued that ratification
of the ERA would undermine
the American family by violating
“the right of a wife to be supported
by her husband,” requiring women
to serve in combat, and legalizing
homosexual marriages. Her “STOP ERA”
campaign would
eventually lead to
the defeat of the ERA
in the Senate, as it failed
to reach the required number
of states’ ratifications before
its deadline in 1982. The ERA
has been regarded as one of
the feminists’ worst defeats
in history since.
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