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OCR A2 Achievement Motivation

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Geraint Davies

on 3 November 2015

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Transcript of OCR A2 Achievement Motivation

Developing Achievement Motivation
OCR A2 Motivation
Motivation
Activity Time
You need to get yourself into teams of 3 or 4
External influences and internal mechanisms that arouse and direct our behaviour (Atherton et al 2008)
Juggling --- Tying shoe lace
Motivation from
within
the performer
Characterised by feelings of
pride
and
satisfaction
from completing or succeeding in a task
For example:
thrill of scoring a goal, pride after completing a difficult course
Intrinsic motivation is
long lasting
and therefore drives performers to continue in their chosen activity
Tends to apply more so to
experienced performers
– knowledge of being a good performer is enough
Make the activity
fun
Set
challenging
situations
Allow performers to
experience success
Set
challenging
but
attainable
goals

- SMART
Use attainable
role models
Encouraging Intrinsic Motivation
A more
temporary
form of motivation from
tangible
or
intangible
external factors
Extrinsic Motivation
Get performers interested by using
extrinsic reward
Using Motivation to Improve Performance
Gradually
decrease extrinsic
reward replacing with
intrinsic
motivation
Too much
focus on extrinsic motivation can result in performers taking part for the trophy or the adulation of the crowd.
What if you lose?!
Motivation affects how much effort we put in, what we do and therefore how successful we become
Intrinsic
TASK 2
Tangible
= physical reward such as a trophy, medal or certificate
Intangible
= non physical reward such as praise and encouragement
Useful to get
beginners
involved in sport
Reflection of Learning
Use the diagram to demonstrate the relationship between the different forms of motivation
Learning Outcomes
The degree to which a person accepts the prospect of challenge in sport is called ‘achievement motivation’
Achievement Motivation
Atkinson & McClelland
Achievement Motivation
Low Naf
High Naf
High Nach
Low Nach
A
B
Definition
Tendency to show approach behaviour
Tendency to show avoidance behaviour
Achievement Motivation is influenced by:
–personality factors

need to achieve (NACH)

need to avoid failure (NAF)
–situational factors

probability of success

incentive value of success

Self-esteem
is how we
value our views
and how others (significant others)
value us
and can be
positive or negative
.
Self Esteem
•Whether a person demonstrates a
Nach
or a
Naf
approach is closely related to their level of
self-esteem
or
self-concept
.
TASK 6
Summary of Learning
Work as a pair - write an exam question based on any part of today's and last lesson on a sticky label
Achievement Motivation: Situational Factors
TASK

3
Activity Time
Increasing Nach & Decreasing Naf
You are the coach, what would you do....
What does today's graph show?
= probability of success low
e.g.
competing against the world champion
therefore strive very hard to win

= incentive high
will be highly chuffed if win
= probability of success high
e.g.
competing in local club match
therefore don’t need to try as hard to win

= incentive low
expect to win easily
not so pleasing
B
A
TASK 2
Atkinson
argues that the situational change in
achievement motivation
depends on:
how the performer sees the
probability of success
(task difficulty) along with;
the
incentive value
of that success (shame or pride felt following the result).
Increase
positive reinforcement
hence increasing
pride
,
satisfaction
and
self-esteem
ensure that
goals
are
achievable
ensure that at least some situations
guarantee success
and subsequently
gradually increase task difficulty
in line with progress
ensure that tasks are
challenging
ensure that the
probability of success
is good
ensure that the
incentive value
of the success is high (is the race worth winning?)
Strategies to Increase Nach
Achievement Motivation in sport is better know as 'competitiveness'
A rock climber climbs a highly rated and extreme wall, with limited chance of success but a great satisfaction element or incentive
The need to achieve is therefore great.
Achievement motivation is defined as
“an individual’s motivation to strive for success, which enables the individual to persist even when he or she meets obstacles and perhaps failure” (Woods, 1998, p.2).
A Proper Definition
TASK 3: Fill the blanks
ALL:
Describe the key features of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation; Identify techniques to help performer develop intrinsic motivation
What makes a champion?
Traits
Behaviours
Personality
Gill, 1986
Comprehension TASK
Have a read of the paragraph and summarise the main findings
TASK 4
Social Comparison Stage
Integrated Stage
Veroff's Model
3.
Autonomous Competence
occurs during the
first 5 years
of a child’s life when they
master basic skills
only
evaluating
their actions against
their own
intrinsic goals
occurs from the
age of 5 onwards
when children
compare
their actions and performance with
those of others
in their peer group
occurs at
any age,
depending on the
experiences
and
development
of the individual
1st 2-3 yrs of life
Any time after 3-5 years
Have a look at the examples on your page......
use to identify the stage of development and then add your own detail and meaning....
Build on Your Learning
AUTONOMOUS COMPETENCE STAGE
for example
, repeated throwing and catching of a ball to themselves until competent
SOCIAL COMPARISON STAGE
some children will
continually seek out competition
to
evaluate
their skills either in terms of an end result or performance
INTEGRATED STAGE
based on both
internal
and
external
standards
allows the performer to
alter their level of motivation
depending on the requirements of
different situations
Implications for Coaching?
coach must strive to
promote learning
and when it is
appropriate
to apply
self-referenced
standards for
comparison
and evaluation
IS
SC
Create a positive environment where
making mistakes is acceptable
Use
positive language
- how can you make that even better
Increase motivation by correcting
inaccurate attributions
that foster a decline in motivation
Promote
positive feelings
and perceptions of positive competence
provide a basic skilled-based learning environment
AC
highlight very clearly in their sessions
when it is appropriate to compete
and
compare
with others during the Social Comparison and Integrated stages
Read and Summarise the Content of Page 5 of your hand out
Learning
Experience
Crucial Lines
Which sports person is most motivated and why?
Thinking like a Sports Scientist
1. Ts = Ms x Ps x Is
2. Read the 3 slips and discuss the meaning
3. Write down what questions you have relating to the theory that you would like answered..
MOST:
Explain the factors that influence achievement motivation
SOME:
Discuss the influence of achievement motivation on sporting performance
Have a go of TASK 1 on your hand-out
It's a bit of lateral thinking!
Welcome to A Level PE
Have you failed before? repeatedly?
What will you get out of it?
Motivated?
How difficult is the task?
What are the dangers of failing?
Past success
Experience
Personality
TASK 2
TASK 6
TASK 5
TASK 8: A Summary
We have already covered a great deal on this topic
Use the words and images (and add your own) and link them together using your knowledge so far...
Q1. Explain how ‘approach behaviour’ can be developed within the team. (4 marks)
Getting Good at Exams!
TASK 1:
You have two example responses to an exam question. Compare and contrast each answer suggesting how many marks you would award, giving reasons for your decision.
A. Positive experiences/give success/avoid negative feelings
B. Gradually increase task difficulty
C. Goal setting
D. Use positive feedback and praise/support from significant others
E. Reduce punishment
F. Encourage risk taking
G. Use attributions correctly
H. Develop high levels of self-efficacy/avoid learned helplessness
1+1+1 for any of the above and 1 for sporting context/amplification
2. Providing examples from a competitive or training situation, explain the characteristics of an individual with a motive to achieve success. [3]
a. Seek out challenging situations – take risks;
b. Concerned with high standards of performance;
c. Task persistence;
d. Approach behaviours;
e. Enjoy evaluative situations;
f. Often pose questions to coaches to clarify points;
g. Not afraid to disagree if they think something is not right;
h. High intrinsic motivation;
i. Not afraid of failure.
(3 x 1 mark if appropriate examples are provided)
TASK 2: Use your margin to plan your answer
Starter
Have a look at the sports quotes on your desk
What do they make you think?
How do they make you feel?
Why do they provoke a reaction?
Do you have a favourite? Why?
TASK 1
Venn diagram
What is the same and what is different about
Intrinsic
and
Extrinsic
motivation?
Who would like to try a VERY difficult task where there is a distinct possibility of failure??
OK who would like to try a
VERY
difficult task where although there is a
distinct possibility
of
failure
, there is also a
reward
if you succeed?
Why is there a difference?!
Others will relish the opportunity to go for glory and achieve success as they will gain self esteem if they score and therefore have a need to achieve (Nach)
For example:

some players would turn down a penalty in a big game because………..?
They have a need to avoid failure (Naf) in order to avoid losing self esteem
Linked to Interactionist theory and therefore depends on the situation and innate traits:
Peer Teaching
In groups of 4
2 people are going to learn about Nach characteristics
2 are going to learn about Naf characteristics
You will then teach the other two about what you have learned
Complete
TASKS 4 & 5
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