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Biomechanics

Analysis of Sprinting
by

Caleb Schoonover

on 11 April 2015

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Transcript of Biomechanics

Sprinting
If You Ain't First, Your Last
time
dist
velocity
stride length
stride frequency
Flight distance
Physique
Flight Phase
Support Phase
traction
takeoff
air resistance
gravity
height
velocity
angle
force exerted
force frequency
start/stop
times
turnover rate
control of phases
joints
head at 45
relax muscles
hip
knee
ankle
shoulder
flight/support
phase
leg length
height/weight
resistance
equipment
speed suit
spikes
F
R
mg
body position
F
N
T
T
T
Free Body Diagram
glutes
quads
hamstrings
gastrocnemius
soleus
deltoids
sartorius
pectoralis
weather
running shoes
Deterministic Model
Hamstrings
Gastrocnemius
Deltoids
Glutes
Quads
Origin-
Scapula
Insertion-
Humerus
Action-
Extension, abduction, and external rotation of shoulder
Plane-
Sagittal
Joint-
Gleno-humeral
Origin-
Ilium, sacrum
Insertion-
Femur, tibia
Action-
Extension, abduction, and external rotation of hip
Plane-
Sagittal
Joint-
Ishio-femoral
Origin-
Ilium, femur
Insertion-
Tibia
Action-
Extension of knee
Plane-
Sagittal
Joint-
Tibial-femoral
Origin-
Ishium, femur
Insertion-
Tibia, fibula
Action-
Flexion, internal and external rotation of knee
Plane-
Sagittal
Joint-
Tibial-femoral
Origin-
Femur
Insertion-
Calcaneous
Action-
Plantar flexion of ankle
Plane-
Sagittal
Joint-
Talo-crural
Keys to Success
Anatomical-
height
weight
leg length
strength

Mechanical-
proper form
stride length
stride frequency
coordination
timing of phases

Each of these keys contribute to the success of sprinters
Article Review-
Lower-Limb Mechanics during the Support
Phase of Maximum-Velocity Sprint Running
Method
Used high speed cameras and a force plate imbedded in the track
They measured velocity of a push off as well as stride length and frequency
Purpose
Analyze sprint technique through inspection of power generated at lower limb joints during the support phase of the sprint
Conclusion
These findings are in contrast to previous findings, however the results of this study do not mean the knee isn’t a necessary part of a successful sprint
Helpful to show where exactly power is generated
With that information skills can be honed for maximum performance
Results

Showed that more work was performed in the hip than any other joint

Also discovered was that the knee performed negligible work compared to the work done in the hip and ankle

Some key notes are that the ankle both dissipates power during the first half of support, as well as generating for the second half

Also, the ankle had the highest velocity for both flexion and extension, in all athletes who participated
Main Muscles
Newton's 2nd law
acceleration = force / body's mass
therefore greater power of leg drive = faster sprinting
Newton's 1st Law-
a body at rest will stay at rest
the force exerted on the ground creates the horizontal movement
Newton's 3rd law
the force through the foot is counteracted by the vertical force of the ground
this combo results in forward movement
Common Errors
1.
pelvic tilting
arching low back
2.
plantar flexion
toes down and out
3.
tension in the upper extremities
fatigue quicker, cover less ground
4.
improper hip flexion/extension
using hamstrings for pulling motion
5.
coming up too fast
when torso rises you cannot gain more speed

Signs of Efficient Performance
1.
straight back
2.
toes up
dorsi-flexion makes sprinting a quad dominant exercise
3.
relax muscles
4.
keep head and body at 45 degree angle

Mechanical Principles
Outline of Sprinting
Mechanical Principles
Keys to success
Common mistakes
Proper form

Misconceptions of Form-
Sprinters should run on their toes

Sprinters should attempt to lean forward

Keep your arms at a 90 degree angles

Increase turnover is the key to sprinting speed
Performance Aspects
stay tall
relaxed
smooth
drive hard

Misconceptions of Performance
stretching improves performance
strength training is not important

Drills to help form
Observation of skill
True or False
Sprinters should run on their toes.

FALSE!
Run on the balls of your feet
Full transcript