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Saudi Arabia

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Christina D

on 20 September 2014

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Transcript of Saudi Arabia

SAUDI ARABIA DESCRIPTION
SAUDI ARABIA HISTORY
SOCIAL WELFARE SYSTEM
SOCIETAL VALUES
SAUDI ARABIA
WORK CITED
RELIGION: All policies must be in accordance with Sharia law and the Quran. For example, universal education is provided but focuses heavily on islamic studies.
PATRIARCHY: Most welfare programs, like Social Insurance, are actually given most to women to encourage retirement or to sustain her as a homemaker, reinforcing belief of women in the home and man as breadwinner.
WORK: Unemployment insurance is based on previous salary and retirement pension is based on amount contributed. Clearly, this incentive encourages making money and therefore work.
Saudi Arabia is located on the Arabian peninsula bordered by Oman, Yemen, the United Arab Emirates, Qatar, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait and Israel, as well as the Persian Gulf and the Red Sea.
Total Land Area: 784,233 square miles
Capital: Ridayh
Major Historical/Religious Site: Mecca
Government: Monarchy in accord with sharia, Quranic law
Current leader: King Abdullah bin Abdulaziz
SAUDI ARABIA POPULATION
Population: 27,345,986 million
0-14 years: 27.6%
15-24 years: 19.3%
25-54 years: 45.4%
55 and older 7.6%
Average Life Expectancy:
Male: 72.79 years
Female: 76.94 years
Ethnicity:
90% Arab
10% Afro-Asian

CURRENT SAUDI WELFARE SYSTEM
PUBLIC/PRIVATE
ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS
OTHER FACTS
Official Language: Arabic
Official Religion: Islam
85-90% Sunni
10-15% Shia
Literacy Rates:
Total: 79%;
Male: 85%,
Female: 71%
GNI per capita: $17,820

Liberal Welfare State (#1 in Mid-East according to Arabworld)
Ministry of Health
Free health care system
Treatment and rehab centers (medical, physical, mental treatment for the disabled)
Ministry of Social Affairs
Rehab centers for socially disabled (social, educational, vocational skills)
Non-profit organizations
Jeddah Institute for Speech and Hearing
The Help Center in Jeddah
The Real Estate Development Fund (housing support)
Ministry of Education
Primary, Intermediate, Secondary or Vocational
Universal and some residual services
Description Slides:
CIA World Fact Book 
BBC News Country Profiles
The New York Times Country Index
Public assistance and social insurance
SOCIAL INSURANCE PROGRAMS
Administered by GOSI
Retirement pensions
Gov. ensures minimum monthly payment of $466 (1750 Riyals)

Occupational Hazard
Disability
Survivor
Claimed at 60 for men, 55 for women
Unemployment just recently ( 12 months of 60% of previous monthly income)
Also Available:
TAX POLICY AND PAYING FOR SAUDI WELARE
Primarily Public dollars with some Private/NGO support
Gov. Revenue:
85% tax on gas and oil companies
20% on all other companies
2.5% income tax for all (Zakat)
11% monthly payment towards retirement pensions by employer and employee
$1300-1750 employer health care payment per month
Gov. Expenditures:
Social Welfare Slides:
Reuters
ssa.gov
KMPG
SAMIRAD
Saudi Embassy
Arabworld
Crossroads Arabia
Tribal nomadic people of of the Arabic Peninsula
Ruled under the Ottoman Empire until World War One and influenced later by the Britain and the United States
Absolute Monarchy,Currently under the Al-Saud family
There is no formal written constitution, though the king is bounded by the Koran and Sharia (Islamic law)


1744-The first Saudi state
1938- Oil discovery brings in wealth
1985-Iraq's war against Iran cost
2001 - September 11,2001
2005-- First nationwide municipal election
2013- Women are sworn in the consultative council, which is a step foreword for woman in public life
HISTORY TOPICS RELATED TO WELFARE POLICY
History Slides:
"A History of Saudi Arabia" by Madawi al-Rasheed
Saudi Embassy
BBC World News
Society Values
Oxford Journals
Hall, Donald W. "Arthropod Proverbs." Retrieved from: http://entnemdept.ufl.edu/proverbs.htm
U.S. Library of Congress. "Cultural Homogeneity and Valeus." Retrieved from: http://countrystudies.us/saudi-arabia/21.htm
ANTI-POVERTY POLICY
Income maintenance programs
Job creation & foreign investors
Allowing women in the workforce
Public Assistance programs
Building wealth programs
INCOME MAINTENANCE
Old age pensions
Disability pension
Survivor pension
Death grant
Marriage grant
Endowment committees
Unemployment benefits

JOB CREATION & FOREIGN INVESTORS
Saudi Arabia joined the World Trade Organization to attract foreign investors
Saudi Arabian companies must employ 30% Saudis
"Employ Saudi" campaign
Job quota for people with disabilities
Creation of The National Program for Training and Employment
Economic Cities
Raised minimum wage of $320-400 USD a month
WOMEN IN THE WORKFORCE
Top jobs in the government are being reserved for women
General Organization for Technical Education and Vocational Training programs for women
Allowing women to go to co-ed universities
PUBLIC ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS
Universal health care
Rehabilitation programs
Vocational training programs
REDF
WEALTH BUILDING PROGRAMS
Creation of the "Centennial Fund" to provide financial backing to young Saudi entrepreneurs
Saudi Arabian General Investment Authority helps Saudi youth translate ideas into actual projects
POVERTY OVER TIME
from 1932-38, one of the poorest countries in the world
oil reserves found in 1938
industrialization, free education/healthcare by 1980
1992 "Basic Law" reigns in wasteful spending by king
2009 food poverty rate approx .06%
In 2008, .8% living under $2 per day
should continue to fall with 129 billion dollar aid package for poverty alleviation over past 3 years
WORKS CITED
Out of the comfort zone. (2012, March 3). Retrieved September 3, 2014, from http://www.economist.com/node/21548973

POLITICAL, ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL INITIATIVES THE KINGDOM OF SAUDI ARABIA. (2008, May 2).
Retrieved September 3, 2014, from http://www.saudiembassy.net/files/PDF/Reports/2008Reports/Reform_Report_May08.pdf

Saudi Arabia. (2006, March 8). Retrieved September 3, 2014, from http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/2005/61698.htm

Saudi Arabia's Economic Cities. (n.d.). Retrieved September 5, 2014, from http://www.oecd.org/mena/investment/38906206.pdf

Social Security Programs Throughout the World: Asia and the Pacific, 2012. (n.d.).
Retrieved September 3, 2014, from http://www.ssa.gov/policy/docs/progdesc/ssptw/2012-2013/asia/saudi-arabia.html

Sullivan, K. (2013, January 1). Saudi Arabia's riches conceal a growing problem of poverty.
Retrieved September 3, 2014, from http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/jan/01/saudi-arabia-riyadh-poverty-inequality



POVERTY BY AGE
MEASURING POVERTY
STATISTICS
ABOUT REDF
ELIGIBILITY
CONS/PROS
OPINIONS
HOUSING FOR ALL
Poverty disproportionally affects children and young adults

Established 1975
Provides semi-subsidized housing to all low-income citizens
Interest-free loans
425,000 loans in the past 20 years
$28.172 billion
Repayable within a period of 25 years
20% of loan is deducted
Loans range from $53,000 to $80,000
Money given in portions
First payment due after 2 years of loan issuance
Low-income
Saudi citizen 21 years of age
Exceptions: married or orphaned
Women applying must be 40 years old
Eligible only once in a lifetime
Social insurance programs for elderly
More than 2/3 of pop. under 30
75% unemployment for those in 20s
Sharia law- father is responsible for children, no gov. responsibility
Polygamy by men creates many children dependent upon him
Offers interest-free loans
Inequality
0.78 (GINI coefficient for housing loans)
0.89 (GINI coefficient for monetary value of loans)
Might take up to 15-20 years of waiting
Increase in construction costs = less houses
Program fails to comply with growing population
6 million (1970) to 28 million (present)
Part of two systems
Free Land Plot Program
Free land to low-income people
4300 - 9700 square feet
1.2 million plots given in past 17 years
Poverty has declined markedly over time
UN Development Council

Saudi Ministry of Social Services

Human Rights Watch

Fadaak, Talha. Poverty in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: An Exploratory Study of Poverty and Female-headed Households in Jeddah City. Wiley Online Library. N.p., 11 Oct. 2010. Web. 04 Sept. 2014.

OVERVIEW BY GENDER
OVERVIEW BY RACE/ETHNIC GROUP
Descendant from a nomadic tribe- approx.70,000people, not looked as citizens
Afro-Saudis - approx.3,000,000 people of the population, cannot have official position
Lacks information for accurate data
Human Development Index (HDI)
Women- unemployment rate 24.9% in 2008, those who are head of the house can't find jobs
Men- unemployment rate 6.9% in 2008, under Islamic law must financially support their wife/wives and children

U.N. Measurements
Assesses a long and healthy life, access to knowledge and a decent standard of living
HDI value of
Saudi Arabia
from 2012 is 0.782 (high)
Ranked 57 out of 187 countries and territories
http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/jan/01/saudi-arabia-riyadh-poverty-inequality
http://edition.cnn.com/2013/09/05/world/moast/twitter-campaign-highlights-poverty/http://www.cdsi.gov.sa/english/
http://www.worldtribute.com/2013/09/22/opposition-saudi-kings-son-promotes-racist-policy-against-nations-black/
http://www.frontpagemag.com/2011/degreenfield/shudi-arabia-themiddle-east-real-apartheid-state
almasahcapital.com/uploads/report/pdf/report-30.pdf

Overview of Race & Gender
United Nations Human Development Report 2013
Anti-Poverty Policy
Measuring Poverty
Poverty Statistics
2-4 million people live under poverty line ($530/month or $17/day)
poverty line estimated by outside organizations
5.6 million live in absolute poverty
73% of Saudis don't own a house
GeoJournal
Time Magazine
The Guardian Online News
Zawya
HOUSING PROGRAM
$60 billion arms deal with United States
$18 billion - King Abdullah
most influential Muslim
United Nations
Poverty Definition: Population below international poverty line of US $1.25 per day according to UNICEF.
However, Saudi Arabia does not have an official definition of poverty.

PART 3
CONTROVERSIES
DOMESTIC WORKER CONTROVERSY
CONDITIONS
DOMESTIC WORKER CONTROVERSY
NEW POLICY CREATED
Agreement between the Philippines and Saudi Arabia to restore the rights of Filipina domestic workers called Resolution No. 310 or the Household Regulation on Service Workers and Similar Categories after previous debates with human rights organizations.
CURRENT IMMIGRATION
MIGRATION
History of Emigration
WORK CITED
Current Immigration
History of Immigration
Immigration Policies
Controversies
HISTORY OF IMMIGRATION
1938-73:
highly skilled laborers from USA and Middle East

1973-present:
mass immigration of unskilled labor from East Africa, South East Asia
1985-present:
female guest worker from Philippines & Indonesia

Mecca Pilgrimage run by Supreme Hajj Committee: <10,000 in 1932 to >2 mil. today (quotas established)
Kafala (1950)
give control over unskilled worker's residency status to employers
Varia, N. (2014, February 19). Dispatches: New Protection for Saudi Arabia's Domestic Workers | Human Rights Watch. Retrieved September 12, 2014.

Khan, A. (2014, February 27). Why it's time to end kafala. Retrieved September 12, 2014, from http://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2014/feb/26/time-to-end-kafala

Domestic Workers Treaty Goes Into Force | Human Rights Watch. (n.d.). Retrieved September 12, 2014, from http://www.hrw.org/news/2013/09/03/domestic-workers-treaty-goes-force

Human Rights Watch | Defending Human Rights Worldwide. (2014, October 14). Retrieved September 12, 2014, from http://www.hrw.org/news/2013/09/03/domestic-workers-treaty-goes-force http://www.gmanetwork.com/news/story/333439/pinoyabroad/news/new-saudi-rules-ensure-rights-safety-of-foreign-household-workers

Indonesian maids get Saudi rights. (2014, February 19). Retrieved September 12, 2014, from http://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-26259326

Saudi women "hired" to fill work quotas. (2014, February 18). Retrieved September 12, 2014, from http://www.bbc.com/news/blogs-news-from-elsewhere-26240482

Halabi, R. (n.d.). Contract Enslavement of Female Migrant Domestic Workers in Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates. Retrieved September 12, 2014, from https://www.du.edu/korbel/hrhw/researchdigest/slavery/fmd.pdf
ILLEGAL IMMIGRATION
1950:
final Jews (about 1,000) forcibly expelled
1991:
deportation of around 800,000 Yemenis (suspected disloyalty in Gulf War)
1995-present:
Saudization forces businesses w/over 20 employees to employ 1/4 Saudis- unemployment for migrant workers leads to more voluntary emigration and deportation
2004:
Saudi-Yemen wall to keep out illegal immigrants
2013-present:
mass deportation of undocumented Ethiopian workers (inhumane methods used by authorities)
7 million

illegal immigrants out of the
28 million

population
2013, roundup of illegal immigrants , leave, figure out visa, or face jail time
Roundup was due to unemployment rate
LEGAL IMMIGRATION
9 million

legal immigrants

out of the

28
million population
Mostly unskilled workers from Asia
Must be sponsored from a employer
nov, 2013
CIA Wold Factbook
US State Department
Jewish Virtual Library
Gibney, Matthew J.; Hansen, Randall(2005). Immigration and Asylum: From 1900 to the Present.
Center for the Study of Labor and Mobility
"Saudi Arabia pays a price for crackdown on foreign workers". The Globe and Mail. 11 April 2013.
Legal/Illegal
http://gulfnews.com/news/gulf/saudi-arabia/illegal-residents-rush-to-leave-saudi-arabia-1.1250205
http://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-25127368
http://www.rawstory.com/rs/2013/11/19/saudi-arabia-deports-60000-immigrants-in-government-crackdown/
http://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/originals/2013/11/saudi-arabia-illegal-immigration-crack-down.html
http://peoplemov.in/#t_SA

Immigration Policies
Visas
Religious = Haj and Umrah
Visitor, very rare, no tourist attractions
Residency permits and visas
people who wish to work in Saudi Arabia
evidence of professional/academic qualifications
sponsored by an employer in Saudi Arabia
Kafala Sponsorship
Israel affiliation
Emigration Policies
Women banned from traveling
Deportations in Nov. 2013
Grace period = 7 months
250,000 people deported
Saudization policy
Exit visas
Alarabiya News
Human Rights Watch
Migration Policy Institute
Saudis expel 100,000+ Ethiopians
Work conditions lead to migration
(Dec 2013)
Migrants continue to arrive in Saudi Arabia, often in debt, because of the sponsorship system, under which Saudi nationals obtain work visas for foreigners they want to employ.
Part 4

General Directorate for Social Protection
Established in 2004
1. Establishes social protection committees in 13 provinces that investigate and remedy CAN
2. Scientific studies
3. Public service announcements
4. Comprehensive national strategy
National Family Safety Program
NGO relying on charity and volunteers
Oversees Child Protection Teams stationed at major hospitals in all 13 provinces
CPT Team consists of:
1. Pediatrician
2. Social Worker
3. Psychologist
Offer counseling, temporary housing, etc. (geared towards helping victims)
CPT Teams work in tandem to diagnose, treat, and report CAN
Other Policies/Programs
Ratified UN's Convention on the Rights of a Child treaty in 1996, guaranteeing certain inalienable rights to children
Royal decree establishes more Social Protection Committees and more public funding to GDSP in 2008

Child Helpline established in 2010 to deal with "lighter" forms of CAN
CAN Protocol Flowchart
Incident
Child Protection Team
Social Protection Committee
Legal Action
Reunification/counseling
Child Abuse and Neglect Overview
Saudi Arabia does not provide an official definition for child abuse and neglect. However, according to the United Nations Conventions on the Rights of Child which Saudi Arabia ratified, the government is meant to "ensure the child such protection and care as is necessary for his or her well-being... and, to this end, shall take all appropriate legislative and administrative measures.”
Child Abuse and Neglect Importance in Saudi Arabia
Like many social welfare issues in Saudi Arabia, welfare issues are ignored or the government pretends the issues are nonexistent
Without government focus on the issue and public campaigns against abusive and neglectful behavior, society permits the behaviors.
The Saudi Arabian government treats children as the property of their parents which creates a culture of abuse and an unwillingness to stop abuse.
History of Child Abuse and Neglect in Saudi Arabia
Before Islam: Child abuse was a very common practice in the preexisting nomadic tribes.
Adoption of Islam: The spread of Islam throughout the Arabian peninsula caused people to have more value for their children.
1990: The first case of child abuse and neglect was reported in Saudi Arabia.
1996: Saudi Arabia ratifies the United Nations Conventions on the Rights of the Child.
2004: Saudi Arabian media covers fatal child abuse cases bringing the topic into mainstream culture.
Now: Saudi National Health Council implements child protective teams.
Policies and Programs
Almuneef, Maha A. Child Maltreatment Prevention Readiness Assessment Country Report: Saudi Arabia. World Health Organization. N.p., Jan. 2012. Web. 18 Sept. 2014.


Al-Eissa, Majid. Peventing Child Abuse and Neglect in Saudi Arabia: Are We Ready? Annals of Saudi Medicine. N.p., Apr. 2012. Web. 18 Sept. 2014.
Ministry of Social Affairs
King Faisal's Special Hospital and Research Center
Overview
Almuneef, M., & Al-Eissa, M. (6, May 2). Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect in Saudi Arabia: Are We Ready? Retrieved September 18, 2014, from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3221137/

Almuneef, M. (2012, January 1). Child Maltreatment Prevention Readiness Assessment Country Report: Saudi Arabia. Retrieved September 18, 2014, from http://www.who.int/violence_injury_prevention/violence/child/saudi_arabia_rap_cm.pdf.pdf

Convention on the Rights of the Child. (n.d.). Retrieved September 18, 2014, from http://www.ohchr.org/en/professionalinterest/pages/crc.aspx

Representing Children Worldwide. (2005, January 1). Retrieved September 18, 2014, from http://www.law.yale.edu/rcw/rcw/jurisdictions/asw/saudiarabia/frontpage.htm


Progress of Issues
2004 : Created governmental & non-governmental agencies in child abuse prevention, and the National Family Safety Registry program
2008: Hospital - based child protection teams, in major hospitals
2005-2007: 51 boys & 38 girls child abuse cases were made. 42 of the cases were children under two years old
Works Cited
Issue Progress
http://www.ngha.med.sa/English/PatientsCorner/Articles/Pages/Efforts%20of%20the%20National%20Family%20Safety%20Program.aspx
http://c.ymcdn.com/sites/www.ispcan.org/resource/resmgr/wgcmd_turkey/2_nfsr-ksa_istanbul_9-9-12.pdf
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3221137/#!po=17.8571

290
124
100
30
20
20
10
6
6
4
4
1
56.3% --- Female victims
43.7% --- Male victims
38.0% --- Victims primary school age
50.6% --- Place of assault was mainly in victim’s home
47.0% --- Reported assault by father
___________________________________________________
If father victimized child:
16.0% --- Reported by mother
08.0% --- Reported by police
SEXUAL ABUSE
2010
STATISTICS
Child Abuse and Neglect Registry in Saudi Arabia (2012)
290
124
100
30
20
20
10
6
6
4
1
4
Statistics
AlMadani, Osama, Manal Bamousaa, and Kholoud Alsowayigha. "Child Physical and Sexual Abuse in Dammam, Saudi Arabia: A Descriptive Case-series Analysis Study." <i>Science Direct</i>. Forensic Medicine Authority, 1 Jan. 2012. Web. 17 Sept. 2014.

Almuneef, Maha. "Child Abuse and Neglect Registry in Saudi Arabia." International Society for Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect. International Society for Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect, 1 Jan. 2011. Web. 18 Sept. 2014.

Eissa, Majid Al, and Maha Almuneef. "Child Abuse and Neglect in Saudi Arabia: Journey of Recognition to Implementation of National Prevention Strategies." Child Abuse & Neglect 34.1 (2010): 28-33. JSTOR. Web.

World Health Organization
*delete bullet of " process of leaving Saudi Arabia "
Distribution of CAN cases by provinces
(deleted bullet )
Full transcript