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chinese philosophies

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simran kripalani

on 10 October 2012

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Transcript of chinese philosophies

SCRIPTURES: Jenny El-Fakir, Suah Kim, Ramsha Javed, Simran Kripalani Chinese Philosophies:
Daoism, Legalism, Confucianism. Turning Points Origins Confucianism Legalism Daoism Key Events 551 BCE 2010 206 BCE-220 CE 518 BCE Confucius is born Confucius starts his own private school. 522 BCE Legendary meeting between Confucius and Lao-Tzu (founder of Taoism) 479 BCE Confucius dies Key Events 1) humanity (ren)
2) ritual propriety (li)
3) righteousness, justice (yi)
4) knowledge (zhi)
5) integrity (xin) PRACTICES: 221-206 BCE Qin Dynasty Emperor orders the burning of Confucian texts and kills many Confucian scholars. Han Dynasty acknowledges Confucian ideals. The Civil Service Examination system has begun. Local officials select candidates to take part in examination of Confucian classics. 500 CE Confucianism is introduced to Japan by Korea (the Pawkche Kingdom) 604 CE Prince Shotoku of Japan introduces a 17 article Constitution that has moral principles based on those of Confucianism. King Gwangjong in Korea establishes a national civil service exam based on Confucianism. PRINCIPLES: 958 CE
Korean Goryeo establishes the Gukjagam school for Confucian classics 9 551 BCE 2012 Confucius's ideas are collected into one book known as the Analects. It is said that there are five classics and four books of Confucianism. They consist of the Book of Songs, the Book of History, the Spring and Autumn Annals,the Book of Changes (I Ching), and the Book of Ritual. Confucius is born in Qufu 522 B.C.E. Confucius starts his own private school. 479 B.C.E. Confucius died. 221 – 206 B.C.E. Qin Dynasty Emperor orders the burning of Confucian texts and kills many Confucian scholars. 206 B.C.E. – 220 C.E. Han Dynasty honors Confucian ideals. Civil Service Examination s ystem is introduced. Local officials would select candidates to take part in examination system of the Confucian Classics. 500's C.E. Confucianism introduced to Japan by Baekje kingdom from Korea. 604 C.E. Japan's Prince Shotoku introduces 17 Article Constitution with moral commandments largely based on the Analects of Confucius. 958 C.E. King Gwangjong of the Goryeo Kingdom in Korea establishes a national civil service exam based on Confucianism. 992 C.E. Korean Goryeo establishes the Gukjagam school for Confucian classics 1100 CE Neo-Confucianism introduced to Japan 1392 C.E. Confucian scholar class thrives under the Joseon Dynasty of Korea 1603 C.E. Japan establishes bureaucratic government based on Neo-Confucian principles. 1644 – 1905 C.E. Qing Dynasty. Civil Service Examination system thrived , but was later discontinued Present Day: Confucianism is a major part of Chinese moral values; however, it has been combined with Doaism and/or Buddhism in different areas. 497 B.C.E. Leaves the state of Lu and heads to Wei to try to promote his ideas. 479 BCE- Confucius dies leaving his disciples Mencius and Xunzi to lead
2nd CEntury BCE- Han Dynasty uses Confucian principles, COnfucianism is also known as "Han State Cult"
11th Century CE- a revival of Confucianism occurs, known as Neo-Confucianism and its principles are later adopted by different Asian governments
19th and 20th centuries-Anti-Confucianism from Qing Dynasty and then with the Rise of Communist China
1980 to Present- Today, Confucianism is a main part of the morals and ethics in modern china. There are conferences for Confucius's birthday and he teachings and books are still used
In January 2011, a 31 foot tall statue of Confucius was erected in Tienanmen Square Present Day Continuity Change Confucianism is not considered a religion in China, only a philosophy
Neo-Confucianism or New-Confucianism is a combination of Buddhist and Confucian thought
Newer principles merge the old ideas of virtue and morals with current economic and scientific thought as well In China, Confucius's teachings are still used
scholars are allowed to study and write about Confucianism
Confucianism principles on morality are still taught and are still the same
Confucianism was created during a time of social and political unrest at the end of the Zhou dynasty. It was used to advance future dynasties and governments adn in modern ties, Confucius thought has advanced and industrialized many East Asian nations: Singapore, Japan, China, Hong Kong, South Korea, Taiwan, and others Followers are known as scholars (ru)
Confucianism is alsop known as the "taching of ru"
there are no deities
they believe in Heaven (Tien) and the ultimate (Tao) If you think in terms of a year, plant a seed; if in terms of ten years, plant trees;, if in terms of 100 years, teach the people Everything is beauty, but not everyone sees it. The strength of a nation derives from the integrity of the home Famous Confucian Quotes Turning Points Key Events Present Day Origins PRINCIPLES: Other Facts: SCRIPTURES: 1) believed human nature was all evil so government should guide them by creating laws
2) Fa- "law or principles"
3)Shu- "method, tactic, art"
4)Shi- "legitimacy, power of charisma" 1) Shang Yang’s theories based on Book of Law written by Li Kui
2) Shang Yang’s book – “The Book of Lord Shang”
3) Han Fei Zi's written works on law adn philosophy
4) written works by first founder Xun Zi 1) central philosophy of Qin Dynasty
2) believed in "punishing to stop punishing"
3) state/country comes first over an individual's needs
4) Other Leaders/Founders:
Han Fei Zi, Shang Yang, Li Si
Husun Tzu is founder of Legalistic school 1) during Qin Dynasty, Lu Buwei becomes, a commoner, becomes Chancellor of China-under legalism, he is able to advance in political position
2) few major event or turning points
3) After Li Si dies a revolution ensues and the Qin Dynasty falls and the Han Dynasty takes over- end of legalism
4) Sui Dynasty tried to rectify Legalist philosophy to unify China, after Sui's death Legalism becomes less harsh 400 BCE 233 BCE 300-200 BCE Continuity Change severe punishments
ideas/principles expressed in the same way in totalitarian governments after Sui Dynasty, some punishments have become less harsh
only some views are still used in Chinese government
no longer main or central philosophy Famous Quotes
by Han Fei Zi It is dangerous for a ruler to trust others. He who trusts others can be manipulated by others. … The superior person takes the inner feelings but leaves the outer appearances, likes the inner qualities but hates the outer decorations. Making punishment definite: If the ruler is too compassionate, the law will never prevail. If the authority it too weak, the inferior will offend the superior. And so, if penalties are not definite, prohibitions and decrees will take no effect. Origins PRACTICES: PRINCIPLES: SCRIPTURES: 1) everything consists of balance
Ying Yang Symbol
2)“The root of Tao is defined as the way of the universe, nature, balance, it is a reality that cannot be grasped in language, or thought. ”
3) Main themes: intuition, spontaneity, simplicity, and the way of nature
4) A person's goal is to conform themselves in the way of the universe, 2205 BCE 770 BCE Hsia (2205-1765 BCE) & Shang (1766-1121 BCE) & Western Chou (1122-770 BCE) Dynasties The roots of Taoism unintentionally started with the tribes of this time era who interacted with the spirits of plants, animals, minerals The Spring & Autumn Period 770-476 BCE The Dao De Jing was written around the 5th or 4th century BCE (date still debated) 475 BCE - Warring States Period 221BCE the Zhuangzi (Chuang Tzu) and the Leizi (Lieh Tzu) were written 142 CE-Zhang Daoling established the “Way of the Celestial Masters” (Tianshi Dao) The Ch’in (221-207 BCE), Han (206 BCE -219 CE), Three Kingdoms (220-265 CE) & Chin (265-420 CE) Dynasties Appearance of the fang-shi – traveling healers or “masters of formulae” Buddhism is brought to China and India. The emergence of the Shangqing Taoist (Way of Highest Clarity) lineage The founding of the Ling-bao (Way of Numinous Treasure) tradition – 4th 5th century The first Daozang, an official Daosit canon, was written around 400 CE. The Tang Dynasty (618-906 CE) Daoism becomes the official “state religion” of China Second Taoist cannon is ordered by Emperor Tang Xuan – Zong 748 CE Emergence of great Taoist poets, painters and calligraphers Main Philosophers 1) Laozi (6th century to 3rd century BCE)
Creator of the foundation of Taoism
Laozi wrote the Tao Te Ching, which was all about completing personal tranquility and is the basic
text of Taoism
Some people think that it was a collaborate effort of several teachers who
wrote the book
2)Chuang Tzu / Zhuangzi (369-286 BCE)
Wrote the Zhuangzi which was more mystical, complex, and had ideas of Taoism
explained in a more explicit fashion
3)Shamans (Shamanism is an important root of Taoism)
“It was the Shamans that made Taoism more of a religious thought than a
philosophical one”
4) Zhang Daoling (142 CE)
First school of thought known as "Way of the Celestial Masters" (Tianshi Dao) 1) Daode jing
2) Zhuangzi
3) Leizi
4) 1st and 2nd Daoist cannons
5) thousands of Daoists texts in existence The Tao is not a God, nor is it a being, but rather a system of guidance.
The One is the essence of Tao. They see it as the Tao being the mother and the One being the son
Te/De - Te is usually translated as virtue
Tzu Jan - is usually translated naturalness or spontaneity
Wu Wei - means living by or going along with the true nature of the world. Present Day CONTINUITY CHANGE Famous Quotes
by Lao Tzu Being deeply loved by someone gives you strength, while loving someone deeply gives you courage. Be Content with what you have; rejoice in the way things are. When you realize there is nothing lacking, the whole world belongs to you. If you do not change direction, you may end up where you are heading. DURING THE WARRING STATES PERIOD Yang Zhu first appeared with the idea of legalism 350 BCE Legalist reforms appear in Qin Dynasty by Shang Yang Han Fei Zi & Li Si develop Legalist ideas Han Fei Zi dies due to Li Si’s plot to kill him 220 BCE Li Si becomes Prime Minister (Ministers were very important to Legalism because they were close advisers to the Emperor and they gave them advice mainly on religion) 208 BCE Li Si is executed, a rebellion beings and Han Dynasty takes over Legalism is briefly revived in Sui Dynasty 589 BCE Legalism didn't really die out, it is no longer a religion, but many totalitarian regimes have used Legalist principles to rule. B They still have the role of a Celestial Master.
the main ideas and values are the same just the name of the "school of thought" has changed and what that school emphasizes most Around 1254, Daoist priest Wang Chongyang developed the Quanzhen school of Daoism.
Daoism is now blended in with the the Chinese teachings of Buddhism and Confucianism. Song Dynasty (960-1279 CE) 3rd Daoist Cannon comprised of 4500 texts 1060 CE Quanzhen Tao school of thought begins (still used todday) The Ming Dynasty (1368-1644 CE) 1445 CE 4th Daoist Cannon-comprised of 5300 texts Rise in Daosit rituals involving magic and sorcery The Ching Dynasty (1644-1911 CE) A revival of more meditative practices Lu-I Ming develops the idea of "Inner Alchemy" The Nationalist Period (1911-1949 CE) & The People’s Republic of China (1949-present) During the Chinese Cultural Revolution many Doaist monks were sent to labor camps and many temples were destroyed.
after 1980 Daoism was revived and is still practiced in many Asian nations
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