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Chapter 8- Vocabulary
Transcript of Chapter 8- Vocabulary
- notice new word, predict meaning, select some to remember
- much more likely to solve a word if we already have it in our oral vocabulary (National Reading Panel 2000)
How do we KNOW we know?
- can use word in varied contexts
- can use the word inside another word or in another form
- as we encounter words again and again, we increase understanding and deepen knowledge
- this knowledge is of the word meaning itself and how the meaning is adaptable into other contexts and words (Nagy & Scott 2000)
Status & Subgroups:
- as much as a 2000 word difference around grade 3 btwn advantaged and disadvantaged (Biemiller and Sonim 2001)
- ELL may need support transferring their native vocabulary to English vocabulary
How Do We Develop Vocabulary?
What Do Readers Need In Order to Build Word Meaning?
1. Monitor understanding during reading
- recognize when they don't understand.
- have strategies to search for meaning (example: Debbie Miller's use of sticky notes to indicate a hard word)
2. Identify important words that impact overall meaning
3. Simultaneously use context, background knowledge, syntax, and morphemic/phonetic clues.
4. Make connections between words
- The more words known = more resources to solve new words with!
5. Use word parts (stretch the definition)
. Predict word meaning then cross reference with structure, meaning, illustrations, backgrounds. Check prediction by reading ahead or rereading.
7. Choose which words to learn, understand, comprehend, use in oral/written language, affix to memory
8. Check resources: dictionary, glossary, illustration, charts, teacher.
Word Learning Checklist
Could be used for small group reading instruction to document students word learning strategies, progress, and to guide instruction.
How Should Word Difficulty Affect Instruction?
Presentation by Victoria Mudd
Building Power In Vocabulary
- When we consider which words we should be explicitly teaching, it is helpful to think of words in terms of difficulty and utility.
- Teachers should focus on Tier 2 words for explicit instruction and decide whether the words allow students to express themselves in a more interesting and mature way (Vaughn & Thompson 2004).
- Can students use the new words to be more precise when referring to ideas they already know about? (Beck, McKeown, Kucan 2002).
- simple, basic nouns, verbs, articles, adverbs, prepositions, and possessives
- consider student exposure and lack thereof
- consider ELL students and transferring the native label to English label
- consider the number of previous student encounters w/ word; the student's background knowledge; the quantity of tier 2 words w/in the text; and the quality of supports w/in text (illustrations, contextual support, etc)
- specialized and scientific; learned through content area study; very few of these words in F&P levels A-N
How Can I Plan for
- Small Group Instruction
1. specific attention to vocabulary with readers of same instructional reading level
2.work with text that has only a few words to solve
3. consider prior knowledge
-Large Group/ Other Contexts
1. Consider Process of Learning:
a. Short term memory
b. Work w/ word
c. Long term memory
2. Context usually does not give enough information
3. Random word learning occurs naturally, but systematic and intentional instruction is necessary
- WRITE with Vocabulary
What does Vocabulary Instruction Look Like?
What Does Vocabulary Instruction
What Does Vocabulary Instruction
15 main areas that need to be included in effective vocabulary instruction. These need to be considered in large group, small group, and in writing lessons.
I have mentioned each and provided several applications to the classroom.
1. Wide Reading:
-conduct lots of reading including all genres (small group lessons and whole group lessons)
-notice and use interesting words from text in their own writing
2. Multiple encounters w/ words:
- group texts w/ similar topics/themes and draw attention to repeated words
- provide visuals of multiple texts w/ same words (or have texts handy prior to lesson)
-reread to make connections with words from their writing to words in text
3. Multiple contexts w/ words:
- draw attention to the same word within different contexts
-have students use same word in a variety of writing
4. Explicit Instruction:
-before, during, and after reading give word meaning and discuss
-in small group, specifically focus on word and provide support/instruction/review
-ask students to write using specified words
-discuss word meaning through text introduction using context, pictures and prior knowledge
-during and after reading give opportunity for students to say word out loud, talk about the word meaning in text, and talk about meaning out of context.
-write down/ journal/ take notes on the discussion, the word learning that occured, or their reaction to discussion to help remember word.
Area Education Agency 267, an educational resource cooperative in Iowa, has a program they developed to make wide reading a school wide event rather than just in the classrooms. Click here to find out more. I particularly noted their use of Nagy & Anderson's research to point out how important vocabulary is in reading development. Also, they have a terrific hand out at the bottom of the page that is a good tool to organize your wide reading efforts. It is called "Eight Factors of SSR"
***make sure you model and teach how to use these resources before you expect students to know how to use them as a resource correctly and most efficiently!
When I hear explicit instruction, I think Anita Archer. Here is a video of a vocabulary lesson and I personally really like her level of student engagement and the way she reviews the words and provides support, examples, and offers students time to think about and talk about the words in their own ways. My next step as a teacher would be to have them read the words in a book and then to use the words in their own writing.
6. Identify Important Words
- show and model act of finding important words
-give copies of text and highlight important words.
7. Use Morphemes
- chunk words into parts we know
- find base word
- divide words into syllables, highlighting prefixes, suffixes, etc.
8. Use context
- Model this thinking process with read alouds
- have student write about their reading using complex words and the names of the strategies they used
9. Use dictionary or glossary
-teach HOW to use these resources
-consider online or electronic resources
10. Call upon prior knowledge/experiences
- talk about what the word meant in a previous context
- predict meaning then check understanding
- write prediction and new information they have learned
This lesson by Helen Hoffner at www.readwritethink.org is a great example of lessons that teach students about morphemes and get them thinking about how these word parts can change or add to the meaning of a word. By putting lessons like this into the word work portion of your daily literacy instruction, the students will be ready to identify word parts and get to the base word quickly when they encounter a difficult word.
Similarly, Florida Center for Research has terrific syllabication and morpheme structure games.
Grades 2-3 here:
We have been fortunate to have a perfect example and model for how to teach students to use context to find word meaning.... Debbie Miller's
Reading with Meaning
text gives us a yearlong demonstration of how to think aloud.
11. Text-based talk and writing
- discuss and write about what students learned about the word
- use webs or charts to show word meanings
12. Make connections between different words
-how is this word similar or different to other words?
-write with these similar and different words after using word webs/chart.
13. Learn about figurative language
- provide mini-lessons on metaphors and idioms
-select texts that have metaphors and idioms included
-provide support in introduction
- give students opportunities to illustrate
14. Take deliberate actions to help students learn words
- give students opportunities to learn words they hear in read alouds and words they themselves read
-document words learned
15. Encourage persistence and celebrate success
-document words learned
-appropriate text placement
-match reader's interest to texts
Several of these highly effective vocabulary instruction methods (specifically # 4, 5, 10, 12, and 14) exhibit themselves in the LINC vocabulary method. Below are pictures of an example and a blank form.
This strategy helps students focus on critical elements of the concept; to use visual imagery, associations with prior knowledge, and key-word mnemonic devices to create word and meaning webs. The links below have more information.
vocabulary instruction provides multiple exposures through rich and varied activities to meaningful information about the word.
(Stahl & Kapnus, 2001, p.14)
Allison, N. (2012, November 1). Evidence-Based Vocabulary Instruction. Retrieved December 2, 2014, from http://thespeechroomnews.com/2012/11/evidence-based-vocabulary-instruction.html
Beck, Isabel L. McKeown, M., & Kucan, L. (2002). Choosing Words to Teach. In Bringing Words to Life: Robust Vocabulary Instruction (15-30). New York, NY: Guilford Press. from http://www.readingrockets.org/article/choosing-words-teach
Hoffner, H. (n.d.). Rooting Out Meaning: Morpheme Match-Ups in the Primary Grades - ReadWriteThink. Retrieved December 2, 2014, from http://www.readwritethink.org/classroom-resources/lesson-plans/rooting-meaning-morpheme-match-880.html
Miller, D. (2013). Reading with Meaning: Teaching Comprehension in the Primary Grades (2nd ed.). Portland, Me.: Stenhouse.
Stahl, S. A., & Kapinus, B. (2001). Word Power: What every educator needs to know about teaching vocabulary. Washington, DC: National Education Association.
Student Center Activities. (Revised 2008, January 1). Retrieved December 2, 2014, from http://www.fcrr.org/for-educators/sca.asp
The Need for Explicit Vocabulary Instruction. (n.d.). Retrieved December 2, 2014, from http://blog.maketaketeach.com/the-need-for-explicit-vocabulary-instruction/
Vaughn, S., & Thompson, S. (2004). Research-Based Methods of Reading Instruction, Grades K-3 (pp. 78-79). Alexandria, Va.: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
Vocabulary Instruction 2nd.mp4. (2013, February 18). Retrieved December 2, 2014, from
Wide Reading | AEA 267 English Language Arts. (n.d.). Retrieved December 2, 2014, from https://www.aea267.k12.ia.us/english-language-arts/reading/vocabulary/word-learning-strategies/wide-reading/