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HEALTH CANCER

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Samuel Koufman

on 26 February 2013

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Transcript of HEALTH CANCER

Specific Cases US: 72,570 new cases of bladder cancer diagnosed (about 54,610 in men and 17,960 in women) in 2013 Cancer Samuel Koufman
Carly Sheriff
Lauren Coogan Sam Lauren Prostate Cancer Kidney Cancer Colorectal Cancer Endometrial Cancer Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma Thyroid Cancer Skin Cancer Breast Cancer Lung Cancer Carly Symptoms Symptoms Bladder Cancer Symptoms Symptoms Symptoms Symptoms Symptoms Screening and Testing Delayed or slowed start of urinary stream
Dribbling or leakage of urine after urinating
Blood in the urine or semen
Bone pain or tenderness when cancer has spread Symptoms Blood or blood clots in the urine.
Usually it is not painful when you are not urinating
Pain during urination
Urinating small amounts frequently.
Frequent UTI's
Pain in the lower back around the kidneys
Swelling in the lower legs. Skin cancer is the most common form of human cancer
Ultraviolet light (which is in sunlight) can cause skin cancer
3 main types of skin cancer: basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, melanoma
most common warning sign of skin cancer is a change in the appearance of skin new growth or sores that won’t go away
ABCD's of Melanoma
A: asymmetry
B: border irregularity
edges are uneven
C: color
color is uneven
shades of brown, tan, black
D: diameter
diameter is greater than 6mm Screening and Testing Cancer that starts in the prostate gland, that wraps around tube that carries urine out of the body Prostate biopsy
Tissue from prostate view in a microscope
Determines Gleason Grade -
Scores 2 - 4: Low-grade cancer
Scores 5 - 7: Intermediate
Scores 8 - 10: High-grade cancer (poorly-differentiated cells)
The higher the Gleason grade the more likely it is to spread beyond prostate gland Screening and Testing Cystoscopy
The doctor inserts a narrow tube called the cytoscope into your urethra.
The cystoscope has a lens and fiber-optic lighting system which makes it easier to allow your doctor to see the inside of your urethra and bladder. Treatment Several types of treatment based on type of person and risk factors
Surgery - remove prostate and tissues around it when cancer has not spread
Radiation therapy - x-rays or radioactive seeds to kill cancer cells
Hormone therapy - decreases effect of testosterone on prostate cancer which can prevent further growth
Monitoring - after all treatments regular check ups are necessary. Prevention a vegetarian, low-fat diet
Finasteride and dutasteride are drugs that prevent prostate growth
not recommended because it is unnatural Hereditary Risk Factors
White People
Older People
Men More common among... Race/Ethnicity - occurs more often in African-American men
Occurs in men over 40 Environmental Risk Factors Hi Carly it's Sam Prevention Seek shade, especially during sunny, midday hours
Wear clothing to protect exposed skin
Wear a hat to protect your face, head, ears, and neck
Wear sunglasses that block as close to 100% of both UVA and UVB rays as possible
Use sunscreen with sun protective factor (SPF) 15 or higher, and both UVA and UVB protection
Reapply every 2 hours
Avoid indoor tanning Smoking is the greatest risk factor associated with bladder cancer
High risk Jobs Lifestyle Related Risks and Factors Cadmium exposure - industrial settings
Dioxin exposure - chemical used in vietnam wars Lifestyle Risk Factors obesity - higher risk of getting agressive form of the cancer; higher risk of dying from prostate cancer
smoking - small increase in the risk of death
sexually transmitted disease - increase risk of prostate cancer
vesectomy - make men infertile; increased risk (not a reason to avoid a vesectomy)
US: About 238,590 new cases of prostate cancer will be diagnosed
WORLD: Statistics Treatment Prevention Stop Smoking
Avoid exposure to industrial chemicals
Avoid exposure to arsenic.
Have your drinking water tested for arsenic levels.
Drink bottled water if you think that your water is contaminated.
Eat healthy foods
Regular Checkups Surgery to remove any cancer.
Chemotherapy, which uses medicine to destroy cancer cells.
Immunotherapy, which causes your body's natural defense system to attack bladder cancer cells.
Radiation therapy, which uses high-dose X-rays to kill cancer cells. Colon - final portion of digestive track, also called the large intestine.
2nd leading cause of cancer related deaths Symptoms
many cases have no symptoms
abdominal pains - lower abdomen tenderness
diarrhea, constipation, change in bowel habits
weight loss for know reason Screening and Testing physical exam - pressure applied to belly area
Fecal occult blood test- tests for small amount of blood in feces.
Colonoscopy - Internal examination of the colon and rectum, using an instrument called a colonoscope.
If colon cancer is discovered staging is required to see if the colon has spread Environmental Risks
Chemicals- Arsenic Statistics on Bladder Cancer for Age and Race Treatments Surgery - extensive surgery needed for stages other than stage 0
Chemotherapy - improve symptoms and prolong patients life
Radiation- often combined with chemotherapy Symptoms Night sweats
Fever and chills (come and go)
Itching
Swollen lymph nodes (neck, underarms, groin, or other areas)
Weight loss
Abdominal pain or swelling
Which may lead to a loss of appetite, constipation, nausea, and vomiting.
In worse cases, headache. Screening and Testing The doctor will perform a physical exam and check body areas with lymph nodes to feel if they are swollen.
Biopsy
Bone marrow biopsy
Complete Blood Count
Gallium Scan
Scan the Skin
Flow cytometry
measures the number of cells in a sample Prevention Get screening and testing early - can often find polyps before they become cancerous
low-fat and high-fiber diets decrease risk
aspirin/ibuprofen medicines may reduce risk but also lead to bleeding and heart problems Genetic predisposition runs in some families - inherited or genetic factor in certain cases
having a father or brother nearly doubles the risk
Changes in genes lead to a small amount of cases Genetic Predisipostion It can be inherited Genetic Predisposition risk factors Environmental risk factors Lifestyle risk factors Environmental Risks Benzene
Herbicides
Insecticides
Radiation Exposure
Atomic Bombs
Nuclear Reactions
Radiation Therapy Lifestyle Related Risks No known risk factors
Helpful to prevent HIV Aids
Sharing Needles
Unprotected Sex
Radiation Exposure
Weakened Immune Systems
Chemotherapy
Chemicals
Overweight (obese) Age - people over the age of 50 are at a higher risk
Health History - having had polyp growth in past, colon cancer, or another bowel disease
Family History - Parent, brother, sister, or child with colon cancer increases your own risk.
Ethnicity - African Americans and Jewish people from eastern Europe Treatment eating a large amount of red or processed meats
being overweight
smoking and drinking alcohol
Type 2 diabetes - based on studies Chemotherapy
Radiation Therapy
Combination of both
Cytokines
Tumor Vaccines
Interferons Radiation therapy directed at the abdomen to treat previous cancers may increase the risk Statistics
US - 153,000 cases in 2008
WORLD - more common in well developed countries
An estimated 1.24 million new cases were diagnosed worldwide in 2008. http://www.cancercenter.com/kidney-cancer/survivors/henry-lucero.cfm Filter waste materials out of the blood and pass them out of the body as urine
Regulate blood pressure and the levels of water, salts, and minerals in the body
Produce hormones that control other body functions Genetic Predisposition Risk Factors Prevention There is no way to prevent NHL Number of Specific Cases US: 56,000 per year
World: 398,360 Statistics male gender has it more common than women
having a family history
Having certain genetic conditions : von Hippel-Lindau disease or inherited papillary renal cell carcinoma.
African Americans are under more risk Environmental Risk Factors Chemical exposure: asbestos, cadmium, benzene, organic solvents, or certain herbicides Enlargement of the neck
Enlarged lymph nodes in the neck
Difficulty speaking normally
Difficulty breathing
Pain in the neck or throat.
Sensitivity in the neck
Persistent or chronic cough not due to allergies or illness Lifestyle Risk Factors Screening and Testing Smoking
Obesity - extra weight causes change in hormones
High blood pressure
Using medications for a long time - over the counter and prescription
Having lymphoma Physically feeling the thyroid gland
Ultrasounding
Biopsy
Fine Needle Aspiration Blood in urine
a lump in your side or abdomen
Long fever that isn't caused by a cold or other infection
extreme fatigue Treatment
Chemotherapy
Radiation therapy
Surgery
immunotherapy - using immune system to kill cancer cells Genetic Predisposition Approximately 5% of thyroid cancers are hereditary Environmental Risks Screening and Testing
CT Scan - used to show detailed image to monitor tumor growth
Core needle biopsy - needle inserted into tissue to see if tissue is cancerous Exposure to ionizing radation from nuclear reactors, atomic bombs, or therapeutic uses of radiation. Prevention
control blood pressure
maintain a healthy weight
avoid exposure to toxins Different Types Papillary
Follicular
Medullary
Anaplastic Statisics
US - About 65,000 new cases will occur
WORLD - Lifestyle Risk Factors Radiation Exposure
Female Gender Treatment Lobectomy- Removal of the lobe
Near-Total Thyroidectomy: Removal of all but a small portion of the thyroid.
Total Thyroidectomy: Removal of all of the thyroid.
Lymphadenectomy: Removal of cancerous lymph nodes in the neck. Radiation Therapy
Chemotherapy
Thyroid hormone therapy
Removes hormones or blocks their action and stops cancer cells
Targeted Therapy Prevention Reduce your exposure to X-rays
Consume a diet that contains iodine.
Fish, Shellfish, Eggs, Dairy Products,
Onions, Radishes, Potatoes, Bananas,
Parsley, Kelp, Etc. Number of Specific Cases US: 60,220 Statistics Many different abnormal activity around the vaginal area after 40.
Lower abdominal pain or pelvic cramping. Screening or Testing Pelvic examination
A Pap Smear
D and C (Dilation and Curettage) Genetic Predisposition 5% of all endometrial cancers are inherited. Environmental Risks and Factors None Lifestyle Related Risks and Factors Obesity
Diabetes
Infrequent periods
Menstruation before 12 Treatment Surgery
Radiation Therapy
Chemotherapy
Removal of the uterus
Removal of the tubes and ovaries Prevention Frequent pelvic examinations and screening tests
Pap smear
Birth Control Number of Specific Cases US: 49,560 Statistics Only Females 1:09 On UVA & UVB rays penetrate the atmosphere & contribute to conditions such as premature skin aging, eye damage and skin cancers SCREENING is looking for cancer before a person has any symptoms
This can help find cancer at an early stage because the abnormal tissue that is found at an earlier stage can be easier to treat
Skin exams are used to screen for skin cancer
Regular exams increase chance of finding skin cancer early
Biopsies are usually done on areas of the skin that look abnormal Skin cancer is a disease where cancer cells form in the tissues of skin Genetic Predisposition/Hereditary & Risk Factors Fair complexion (freckles & burns easily, doesn't tan/tans poorly), red or blonde, light colored eyes
Being exposed to natural/artificial sunlight for long periods of time
Several large or many small moles (melanoma)
Family history of skin cancer (melanoma) appears to double risk of getting this disease Treatment Most treatments are safe and effective
Surgery: main treatment
Remove tumor
Chemotherapy: drugs injected into the bloodstream
Given in cycles with time to rest and recover time for the body
Immunotherapy: drug given through IV
Once every 3 weeks, 4 treatments
Radiation therapy: uses high energy rays to kill cancer cells Screening & Testing Genetic Predisposition/Hereditary Risk & Factors Environmental Related Risks & Factors Lifestyle Related Risks & Factors Treatment Prevention Statistics A new cough that develops in a smoker or former smoker that doesn't go away or gets worse should raise concern
Coughing up blood
Persistent pain in the chest
Shortness of breath, wheezing & hoarseness
Repeated respiratory infections
Unintentional weight loss Smoking (risk of lung cancer increases with the # of cigarettes smoked each day)
Tobacco smoke contains carcinogens, cancer-causing agents
Exposure to secondhand smoke, radon gas
Excessive alcohol use Testing sputum (mucus brought up by lungs from coughing)
X-rays
CT scans (most effective) Having a closely related relative with lung cancer doubles the risk of developing lung cancer
African Americans are more likely to develop lung cancer earlier Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in both men and women Clinical Trials
Research studies that help to determine whether new treatments are safe and effective or better than existing treatments
Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment
Surgery
Chemotherapy & radiation
recommended for patients with stage 3 lung cancer which cannot be removed surgically
Targeted treatments
Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment
Chemotherapy & radiation therapy
Preventative radiation therapy to the brain
Surgery Exposure to secondhand smoke and harmful chemicals and toxic chemicals - ex. diesel exhaust, high radon levels
Family history: risks of getting lung cancer are increased through inheriting increased risk in their genes
Diet
Radiation therapy to chest Don't smoke: tobacco use is the major cause of lung cancer in the US
Approximately 90% of men and 80% of lung cancer deaths in women in the US are due to smoking
Avoid secondhand smoke
Make your home and workplace safer
Test for radon
Eat healthy foods
Carotenoid-rich foods are suggested to protect against lung cancer 2009: 205,974 people in the US were diagnosed with lung cancer
2009: 158,081 people in the United States died from lung cancer
2008: approximately 1,651,000 million lung cancer cases
More than 8 in 10 lung cancer occur in people 60 years and above Environmental Related Risks & Factors Prolonged exposure to sun
Geographical location: some areas receive higher UV radiation
Exposure to pollution Lifestyle Related Risks and Factors Tanning Screening & Testing Genetic Predisposition/Hereditary Risks & Factors Environmental Related Risks & Factors Lifestyle Related Risks & Factors Treatment Prevention Statistics A lump in the breast or underarm (usually painless) is often the 1st apparent symptom of breast cancer
Swelling in the armpit
Flattening or indentation of the breast may indicate a tumor that cannot be seen or felt
Distinctly different area of skin, any change in size, contour, texture, or temperature of the breast
Itching or burning sensation Doctors still are not certain how to prevent breast cancer from occurring but there are things that are recommended:
Regular aerobic exercise
Nutrition and diet plays smaller role in prevention
Dietary fats may increase your risk of developing breast cancer
Limit alcohol consumption
Women who drink 2 1/3 - 4 1/2 bottles of beer per day, 2 1/2 - more than 5 glasses of wine per day, or 2 - 4 shots of liquor per day have a 41% increased risk of breast cancer
Have annual mammograms, thorough medical checkups twice a year, self-check once a month
Doctors recommend to start getting regular mammograms at 40 - 50 years old The treatment options for breast cancer depend on how advanced the cancer is, how old the woman is, and how healthy she is otherwise
Surgery followed by radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or hormone therapy
Standard surgery for breast cancer was once modified radical mastectomy: removal of the entire breast and lymph nodes in the breast and under the arm.
When breast cancer is detected early and is still localized, lumpectomy: removal of the cancerous lump and testing key lymph nodes is now the preferred treatment
Followed by radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and hormone therapy Regular breast self-exams
Clinical breast exam annually
Mammogram: X-ray of the breast Non-industrialized countries have lower breast cancer rates than industrialized countries
Smoking
Risk of breast cancer is 60% higher for women who had smoked up to 40 years
Women who smoked 20 cigarettes or more a day for 40 years increased their risk to 83%
Pesticides that accumulate on animal products
Commercial product chemicals
Ex. solvents, plastic water bottles, appliances, cars, toys, a chemical found in food packaging
Pollutants
Radiation exposure Women who have not had children or who had their first child after age 30 have a slightly higher breast cancer risk
Having many pregnancies and becoming pregnant at an early age reduces breast cancer risk
Use of birth control can sometimes slightly increase the risk
Alcohol consumption
The American Cancer Society recommends that women have no more that 1 alcoholic drink per day
Being overweight or obese
Exercise reduces breast cancer risk
To reduce your risk of breast cancer, the American Cancer Society recommends 45 to 60 minutes of intentional physical activity 5 or more days a week 5% - 10% of women have a mother or sister with breast cancer
2 major genes that when they mutate can cause breast cancer can be passed from parent to child, increasing the risk of developing breast cancer in the child who inherited these genes 2009: approx. 211,731 women in the US were diagnosed with breast cancer
2009: 40,676 women in the US died from breast cancer
2010: approx. 1.5 million in world diagnosed with breast cancer
1/3 of these cancer deaths could be decreased if detected and treated early. This means that nearly 400,000 lives worldwide could be saved every year.
Age 20-29: 1 in 2,000
Age 30-39: 1 in 229
Age 40-49: 1 in 68
Age 50-59: 1 in 37
Age 60-69: 1 in 26
Lifetime: 1 in 8 Statistics 2012: approx. 21,700 cases in US
Approx. 3 million skin cancer cases occur globally each year Bladder cancer is a disease in which the cells lining the urinary bladder lose the ability to regulate their growth and start dividing uncontrollably. This abnormal growth results in a mass of cells that form a tumor. Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma is cancer that originates in your lymphatic system, the disease-fighting network spread throughout your body. In non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, tumors develop from lymphocytes — a type of white blood cell. Cancer of the uterine lining.
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