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The Physics of Snowboarding

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Bryson Harllee

on 2 December 2012

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Transcript of The Physics of Snowboarding

The Physics of Snowboarding What is Snowboarding? Snowboarding is a sport that involves descending a slope that is covered with snow on a snowboard attached to a rider's feet using a special boot set onto mounted binding. The development of snowboarding was inspired by skateboarding, sledding, surfing and skiing. It was developed in the U.S.A. in the 1960s and the 1970s and became a Winter Olympic Sport in 1998. Product Mentor Physics plays a major role on a snowboarder in snowboarding. With the understanding of physics, snowboarding can seem like a pretty simple sport. Although, the application is what makes it so hard and so fun. Through the understanding of this idea, the many factors of physics that affect snowboarding become simple to unerstand why they are so important. Motion Velocity Gravity Momentum Kinetic Energy and Potential Energy Center of Balance Force Equal and Opposite Forces Snowboarder gains speed by converting gravitational potential energy into kinetic energy of motion. The vertical height affects speed, the hypotenus of the slope does not affect your speed. Friction and Wind Resistance Wax on the board Skidding with friction Understanding Carving Carving is like turning a bike. Snowboard angle on snow surface and Tilting Camber Types of cambers, how they work on snow, and how they work on flat versus curved surfaces. Snow surface Gaining Speed Board Shape and Design Motion is a change in position of an object with respect to time. Change in action is the result of an unbalanced force. Motion is typically described in terms of velocity, acceleration, displacement and time. Displacement Time Acceleration An object's momentum is directly related to the object's mass and velocity, and the total momentum of all objects in a closed system (one not affected by external forces) does not change with time, as described by the law of conservation of momentum. Acceleration is the rate of change of velocity with time. In one dimension, acceleration is the rate at which something speeds up or slows down. Velocity is speed in a given direction. Speed describes only how fast an object is moving, whereas velocity gives both the speed and direction of the object's motion. To have a constant velocity, an object must have a constant speed and motion in a constant direction. Constant direction, typically constrains the object to motion in a straight path. A displacement is the shortest distance from the initial to the final position of a point "A". Thus, it is the length of an imaginary straight path, typically distinct from the path actually travelled by "A". A displacement vector represents the length and direction of that imaginary straight path.
A position vector expresses the position of a point "A" in space in terms of a displacement from an arbitrary reference point O (typically the origin of a coordinate system). Namely, it indicates both the distance and direction of an imaginary motion along a straight line from the reference position to the actual position of the point. Time is a part of the measuring system used to sequence events, to compare the durations of events and the intervals between them, and to quantify rates of change such as the motions of objects. The temporal position of events with respect to the transitory present is continually changing; events happen, then are located further and further in the past. Time has been a major subject of religion, philosophy, and science, but defining it in a non-controversial manner applicable to all fields of study has consistently eluded the greatest scholars. A simple definition states that "time is what clocks measure". Gravitational acceleration is the acceleration on an object caused by gravity. Neglecting friction such as air resistance, all small bodies accelerate in a gravitational field at the same rate relative to the center of mass. This equality is true regardless of the masses or compositions of the bodies. On Earth, objects fall with an acceleration of about 9.8 m/s2, Mr. Cavendar Potential energy is the energy stored in a body or in a system due to its position in a force field or due to its configuration. The SI unit of measure for energy and work is the Joule (symbol J). The Kinetic energy of an object is the energy which it possesses due to its motion. It is defined as the work needed to accelerate a body of a given mass from rest to its stated velocity. Having gained this energy during its acceleration, the body maintains this kinetic energy unless its speed changes. The same amount of work is done by the body in decelerating from its current speed to a state of rest. Center of balance (COB) is a point with respect to which the object in question is balanced with respect to applied forces. Also known as center of gravity, where a material body is a point that may be used for a summary description of gravitational interactions. In a uniform gravitational field, the center of mass serves as the center of gravity. This is a very good approximation for smaller bodies near the surface of Earth, so there is no practical need to distinguish "center of gravity" from "center of mass" in most applications, such as engineering and medicine. In physics, the center of mass or barycenter of a system is the average location of all of its mass. In the case of a rigid body, the position of the center of mass is fixed in relation to the body. In the case of a loose distribution of masses in free space, such as shot from a shotgun or the planets of the Solar System, the position of the center of mass is a point in space among them that may not correspond to the position of any individual mass. Newton's Third Law: To every action there is always an equal and opposite reaction - or the forces of two bodies on each other are always equal and are directed in opposite directions. Ski wax is a material applied to the bottom of skis and snowboards to improve the board/ski's performance on snow. With the effects of the cold environment, the wax helps create a frictionless surface between the board and the snow. http://www.cleanvideosearch.com/media/action/yt/watch?videoId=naZ60vXJVWI An object's velocity cannot change unless it is acted upon by a force, as described by Newton's first law. A force is any influence that causes an object to undergo a change in speed, a change in direction, or a change in shape. In other words, a force is that which can cause an object with mass to change its velocity (which includes to begin moving from a state of rest), i.e., to accelerate, or which can cause a flexible object to deform. Force can also be described by intuitive concepts such as a push or pull. A force has both magnitude and direction, making it a vector quantity. Newton's second law, F=ma, was originally formulated in slightly different, but equivalent terms: the original version states that the net force acting upon an object is equal to the rate at which its momentum changes. Friction is the force resisting the relative motion of solid surfaces, fluid layers, and/or material elements sliding against each other. You can have dry friction that resists relative lateral motion of two solid surfaces in contact. This can be subdivided into static friction between non-moving surfaces, and kinetic friction between moving surfaces. Skin friction is a component of drag, the force resisting the motion of a solid body through a fluid. Internal friction is the force resisting motion between the elements making up a solid material while it undergoes deformation. When surfaces in contact move relative to each other, the friction between the two surfaces converts kinetic energy into heat. Kinetic energy is converted to heat whenever motion with friction occurs. Another important consequence of many types of friction can be wear, which may lead to performance degradation and/or damage to components.

For Wind Resistance, in fluid dynamics, drag (sometimes called air resistance or fluid resistance) refers to forces which act on a solid object in the direction of the relative fluid flow velocity. Unlike other resistive forces such as dry friction, which is nearly independent of velocity, drag forces depend on velocity. Drag forces always decrease fluid velocity relative to the solid object in the fluid's path. A carve turn is a term used to refer to a turning technique in which the snowboard shifts to one side or the other on its edges. In this case, the snowboard turns itself and is driven by the sidecut geometry while losing no speed, unlike a normal turn. A carved turn is like leaning into a turn on your bike, or when a racecar makes a turn on a racetrack. The sidecuts on the board's shape affects carved turns. Types of snow can be designated by the shape of its flakes, description of how it is falling, and by how it collects on the ground. A blizzard and snow storm indicate heavy snowfalls over a large area, snow squalls give heavy snowfalls over narrow bands, while flurries are used for the lightest snowfall. Types which fall in the form of a ball, rather than a flake, are known as graupel, with sleet and snow grains as types of graupel. Once on the ground, snow can be categorized as powdery when fluffy, granular when it begins the cycle of melting and refreezing, and crud or eventually ice once it packs down into a dense drift after multiple melting and refreezing cycles. When powdering, snow drifts with the wind, sometimes to the depth of several metres. After attaching to hillsides, blown snow can evolve into a snow slab, which is an avalanche hazard on steep slopes.
Snow grooming is the process to manipulate snow for recreational uses, usually using a snow groomer vehicle. This can be a tractor, truck or snowcat towing specialized equipment to move and manipulate snow. The process is used to maintain ski hills and snowmobile trails by grooming (moving, flattening and compacting) the snow on them. Bryson Harllee
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