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Cellular Respiration

Aerobic and anaerobic
by

Alex Garcia

on 14 January 2015

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Transcript of Cellular Respiration

Occurs in the Cytoplasm (only step that doesn't happen in the mitochondria)
Glycolysis
Step 1
Step 2
Step 3
Glucose is broken down into two molecules of pyruvic acid
It only creates a small amount of energy
ARTICLE 2
The muscles of your body use energy when they contract and you need more energy when you exercise because your muscles contract more. During a light exercise, oxygen is delivered to your muscles and your muscles can produce energy by aerobic respiration. During a high-intensity exercise, your muscles don't receive enough oxygen and are produce energy by anaerobic respiration. High-Intensity exercises usually don't last very long since the amount of energy made during anaerobic respiration is less than the amount made during aerobic respiration.
Article 3
The normal function of lung cells is to absorb oxygen from the air and remove carbon dioxide from the blood, also known as cellular respiration. When lung cancer develops, abnormal tumor cells grow out of control and begin to interfere with the process. If it's left untreated, lung cancer will eventually cause breathing complications leading to respiratory failure, Pneumonia, Pulmonary Fibrosis, ultimately resulting in death.
"THE CELLULAR RESPIRATION PROCESS DURING
EXERCISE"
"The Effects of Lung Cancer on Cellular Respiration"
2 molecules of ATP are formed
Glycolysis
Glucose
Phosphorilated 6 C Sugar
(diphosphate fructose)
3 C sugar phosphate
(GALP)
3 C sugar phosphate
(GALP)
Pyruvate
Pyruvate
2 x ATP
2 x ADP
2 x ADP

2 x ATP
2 x ADP

2 x ATP
2 x NAD
2 x NADH
2 x NAD

2 x NADH
Glycolysis
Occurs in the cytoplasm
No need of Oxygen
There is a net gain of 2 ATP molecules and 4 NADH molecules
Synthesis of ATP at substrate level
Both aerobic and anaerobic respiration
Glycolysis yield
2 x ATP
2 x NADPH
2 x Piruvate
The end products of glycolysis are:
2 x ATP
2 x NADH
2 x Pyruvate
Pyruvate is first transformed into an energy- rich substrate called Acetyl-Coenzime A.
Pyruvate loses a C which is given off as CO2.
One molecule of NAD+ is reduced into NADH.
When there is plenty of Oxygen available, the pyruvate produced as the end product of glycolysis is fed through into the mitochondria
Citric acid
+ CoA
The Krebs cycle takes place in the
matrix
of the mitochondrion

Each individual steps in controlled by a specific intracellular enzyme
.

The enzymes that remove carbon dioxide are known as
decarboxylases

Those that remove hydrogen are
dehydrogenases
One molecule of glucose yields:
2 x ATP
2 x NADH
At glycolysis
At Krebs Cycle
2 x ATP
6 x NADH
2 x FADH
4 x CO2
At Co-A step
2 x NADH
2 x CO2
TOTAL = 4 x ATP
8 x NADH
4 x FADH
6 x CO2
Electron Transport Chain
High-energy electrons are passed from the NADH and FADH to proteins carriers.

Protein carriers are protein complexes (some of which pump H+), cytochromes and coenzymes.

As they become reduced and then oxidased again, sufficient energy is released to drive the production of molecules of ATP

Electrons from 1 NADH pump 6 x H+
Electrons from 1 FADH2 pump 4 x H+

Oxygen acts as the final electron acceptor. Oxygen and electrons join H+ from the inner compartment to form water

A proton gradient (Concentration, PH and electrical) is formed between the matrix and the intermembrane space
Summing up the proton yields
From one molecule of glucose (2 pyruvates)
8 NADH x 6 H+ = 48 H+
4 FADH2 x 4 H+ = 16 H+
TOTAL = 64 H+
2 x FADH2
(The Chemiosmotic theory of Peter Mitchell, 1961)
Oxydative Phosphorylation
As protons escape the steep H+ gradient of the intermembrane space, their free energy is used by ATP synthase to form ATP from ADP and Pi
Each pair of H+ generates 1 ATP
Therefore, the 64 H+ from NADH and FADH2 will yield 32 ATP molecules
ATP yields form Glucose metabolism
Glycolysis
Co-A Step
Krebs cycle
NADH FADH2 ATP
(2) 2 2

2 - -

6 - 2
------------------------------
8 NADH 4 FADH2 4 ATP
48 H+ 16 H+
-------------------------------
24ATP 8 ATP 4ATP
Proton equiv.
SUbtotal
TOTAL 36 ATP per glucose
The free energy increase fom ADP to ATP is 7,3 kcal/mol
(14.6/686) x 100 = 2.12%
Total value of aerobic cell respiration is 263 kcal/mol
If we consider that the free energy value of glucose is 686 kcal mole. What is the efficiency of aerobic respiration?
(263/686) x 100= 38.6%
Compare that to the efficiency of anaerobic respiration
2 x ATP (7.3kcal/mole) =14.6kcal
The Co-A Step
What is the evidence
of the model?
The H+ concentration means that there is a tendency for the H+ to move back into the matrix
The only way they can move back into the matrix is through the channel of ATP synthases
Electron microcrographs show the surface of the inner membrane of the mitochondrion to be covered in stalked particles that provide an excellent site for enzymes to work.
Isolated mitochondria supplied with glucose and O2 will produce ATP
If there is not enough oxygen available, piruvate enters the anaerobic pathway
FERMENTATION
ALCOHOLIC
FERMENTATION

LACTIC
FERMENTATION

Lactic acid must be oxidized back to pyruvate,
which will enter the Krebs cycle when oxygen is available

Post exercise oxygen consumption is higher than the the amount needed for simply oxidizing lactate. So where does all that oxygen go to?
OJO!
Read box on page 134 and make a summary of the seven factors affecting our oxygen needs after intense exercises.
C6H12O6 + 6O2 = 6CO2 + H20 + 36 ATP
Full transcript