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World War 1 and India
Transcript of World War 1 and India
in WW1 Indian Soldiers in France Indian Soldiers in France Indians In Britain The Economy Statistics of Indians
in WW1 Before the War: After the War The Economic
Effect The Effects of WW1
on Britain •Due to WWI, Britain's role in international trade was severely diminished. This affected the British economy badly, especially the Staple Industries (Coal, Iron/Steel, Textiles etc).•During the war, the disruption of trade had led former overseas customers to Britain (i.e. Russia and the Far East) to reduce the amount of imports from Britain.•Britain had accumulated £1 billion of debt because of the war, owed mainly to the USA War disrupted trade through fighting, blockades, loss of markets and through collapse in trading confidence and investment.
· British factories switched over to war production, British imports rose to fuel war-production and exports of manufactures and services fell.
· In order to pay for the war, gold reserves were depleted and assets sold. In 1914 Britain had £750,000,000 invested in the United States but by 1918 nearly all of this had been sold in order to pay for the war effort.
· Government borrowing increased from 0.26% of National Income in 1913 to 1.57% in 1919 The Indians wounded from the trenches of the Western Front were hospitalised in Britain. A large number of Indian civilians were also recruited for the hospitals and for the front.
Before the war started, the Germans had spent a great deal of time and energy trying to stir up an anti-British movement in India. Many shared the view that if Britain got involved in a crisis somewhere in the world, Indian separatists would use this as an opportunity to advance their cause. When war was declared on August 4th, India rallied to the cause. Those with influence within India believed that the cause of Indian independence would best be served by helping out Britain in whatever capacity India could, including financially.
Offers of financial and military help were made from all over the country. Hugely wealthy princes offered great sums of money.
India as a country poured a huge amount of money into World War 1 and as a result was almost bankrupted afterward. In August 1914, as the German Army advanced through France and Belgium, more Allied troops were desperately needed for the Western Front. The Indian Army, 161,000 strong, seemed an obvious source of trained men, and the Lahore and Meerut infantry divisions were selected for service in Europe. In October, shortly after they arrived, they were fed piecemeal into some of the fiercest fighting around Ypres. Losses were heavy. The average Indian battalion had 764 men when it landed; by early November the 47th Sikhs had only 385 men fit for duty. The fighting came as a shock to soldiers more used to colonial warfare. One man wrote home 'this is not war; it is the ending of the world'. The Indian Corps provided half the attacking force at the Battle of Neuve Chapelle in March, and the Lahore Division was thrown into the counter-attack at the Second Battle of Ypres in April. Morale seemed to pick up in the spring of 1915, only to decline towards the end of the summer when it became clear that an end to the war was not in sight. The Indians again took heavy losses at the Battle of Loos in September.
Two Indian cavalry divisions remained on the Western Front until March 1918, when they were transferred to Palestine to take part in the offensive against the Turks. The Response of the
INC and AIML The Economic
Effects: - Indian taxpayers contributed £146 million to Britain to pay for the war.
- Taxes in India went up by 16% in 1916, 14% in 1917, and 10% in 1918.
- There was a shortage of furl and food because a lot of it was sent to Britain during the war.
- Prices of British-made and manufactured goods
went up by 190% India after
World War 1 During WW1, India flourished in business and economic terms but when the war ended, Indian businessmen faced ruin as competition from British goods resumed.
Indian soldiers who returned home were no longer seen as heroes by the British and instead were referred to as "natives." The Effect of WW1
on India Britain had been one of the richest countries in the world. However the Great War placed enormous financial strain on Britain and its Empire with resources, cash and foreign assets being diverted for the war.
By 1914 Britain was no longer the dominant economic power in Europe. It still had the world's largest shipbuilding industry but in other areas such as coal, iron, chemicals and light engineering, Britain was out-performed by Germany.
In 1914 Britain was a constitutional monarchy under George V. The government was formed by the majority party of the House of Commons. Members of this parliament were elected by some 8 million registered male voters. The aristocratic House of Lords had limited power to veto legislation. The Indian troops that were killed in the war won 13,000 medals for gallantry, including 12 Victoria Crosses.
Khudadad Khan won the first Victoria Cross.
One million Indian troops served overseas; 62,000 died and another 67,000 were wounded. In total 74,187 Indian soldiers died during the war.
During the First World War, over 130,000 Indian soldiers served in France. Congress President
Surendranath Banerjea The war was not worth anything for the Indian people there was no benefit for them, so should stand up and not fight;
"The idea of re-adjustment is in the air, not only here but all the world over. The heart of the Empire is set upon it. What is this war for? Why are these enormous sufferings endured? Because it is a war that will set right the claims of minor nationalities… They are talking about what will happen after the war in Canada; in Australia; they are talking about it from the floorof the House of Commons and in the gatherings of public men and ministers of the state. May we not also talk about it a little form our standpoint." When the British entered the British Indian Army into World War I, it provoked the first definitive, nationwide political debate of its kind in India. Voices calling for political independence grew in number.
Tilak, as a leader of the extremist part of Congress, said that even if India ultimately wanted to be separate from Britain at this time, they had to work with them. This echoes the beliefs of the Indian National Congress. Tilak said of the war, "our sense of loyalty is inherent and unswerving." The INC and Tilak Unrest in India during World War 1 “The moment Britain gets into trouble elsewhere, India, in her present temper, would burst into a blaze of rebellion.”
William Archer (author) ‘Before the war started, the Germans had spent a great deal of time and energy trying to stir up an anti-British movement in India. Many shared the view that if Britain got involved in a crisis somewhere in the world, Indian separatists would use this as an opportunity to advance their cause.’
India and World War One, www.historylearningsite.co.uk Indian Unrest ‘The war between Germany and England broke out in August, 1914 and created a golden opportunity for Gadarites to expel the English from India while British troops would be busy fighting war at the front. The Gadarites started forceful campaign to mobilize overseas Indians in Singapore, Burma, Egypt, Turkey and Afghanistan and particularly Punjabis in Canada and the USA to go to India and launch revolution. They drew plans to infiltrate the Indian army…had arranged for substantial financial aid from Germany’
Inder Singh: Gadar – Overseas Indians Attempt to Free India from British Serfdom, Unrest in India ‘When war was declared on August 4th, India rallied to the cause. Those with influence within India believed that the cause of Indian independence would best be served by helping out Britain in whatever capacity India could – including the Indian National Congress.’ India and World War One, Unrest in India “The Indian empire has overwhelmed the British nation by the completeness and unanimity of its enthusiastic aid.”
The ‘Times’ THANK YOU Trench Warfare in World War 1. The India Gate in the center of New Delhi Indian Troops, marching by Lizzie, Sophie, Eilidh, Phoebe and Suzanna