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African American Civil Rights
Transcript of African American Civil Rights
African American Civil Rights
13th Amendment Passes
The 13th amendment freed all slaves in the United States.
14th Amendment Passes
The 14th amendment made all former slaves equal to the rest of the population under the law, giving them the same Constituional rights.
March on Birmingham
Many black civil rights activists were denied their right to march in Birmingham, Alabama. Present that day, Martin Luther King Jr. was arrested and denied the right to a lawyer, all of which was only put a stop to by J. F. Kennedy.
Integration of 'Ole Miss
On September 30, 1962, James Meredith, a black US Air Force veteran, tried to be the first student to integrate the University of Mississippi. 120 federal marshals were sent to the school to protect Meredith and calm riots. But it wasn't sufficient. That night, officials struggled to keep peace through the violent riots. By the next morning, there were two dead and many injured. For Meredith, this was the aftermath of the college not accepting him based on his race. Two years before, the case was brought before the Supreme Court who ordered 'Ole Miss to accept Meredith. James Meredith graduated from the University of Mississippi in August of 1963.
March on Washington
Civil rights activists Jim Farmer, Martin Luther King, John Lewis, Roy Wilkens, and Whitney Young, referred to as the big six, lead the March on Washington and composed a list of demands from the government. 200,00 to 300,000 people gathered at the National Mall to listen to speeches, singing performances, and prayers. Near the end of the event, Martin Luther King Jr. delivered his, "I have a dream," speech. Of the crowd that he spoke to, 80% of the audience was black. The event was viewed by millions of Americans on TV, the first exposure the movement for many, beyond biased newspapers and TV broadcasts.
Civil Rights Act
Malcolm X Assassinated
24th Amendment Passes
Voting Rights Act
Black Power Movement Begins
Loving v. Virginia
Martin Luther King Assassination
Regents of University of California v.
L. Douglas Wilder (VA) Elected Governor
Los Angeles Riots
Colin Powell becomes Secretary of State
Barack Obama Elected President
15th Amendment Passes
The 15th amendment gave former slaves the right to vote; making them completely equal(under the law) to everyone else.
Plessy v. Ferguson
This act, signed by Lyndon B. Johnson outlawed segregation and discrimination in public places and by private employers.
The 24th Amendment banned poll taxes in the U.S., which had previously prevented blacks from voting.
Contrasting Martin Luther King Jr's fundamentals, Malcolm X believed that blacks should fight to win their rights, "By any means necessary."
This act, signed by President Lyndon B. Johnson, banned discriminatory election laws that prevented blacks from being able to vote as easily.
The Black Power Movement indicated a turning point of how blacks viewed themselves and general relationships between blacks and whites.
This supreme court case dealt with the interracial marriage of a Virginia couple who were told to leave Virginia for 25 years. The court found bans on interracial marriages unconstitutional.
This case declared the use of the University's racial discrimination in its admission process unconstitutional.
This man became the first elected black governor in the U.S..Wilder was the grandson of former slaves.
On March 3, 1991, black Rodney King was
beaten by Los Angeles Police Officers after
he lead them in a high-speed car chase, which resulted in 11 fractures. The beating was recorded by nearby resident from a balcony. Following the release of the tapes, Rodney King was not charged and the LAPD was acquitted. The fact that the police faced no penalty brought violent riots resulting in 50 deaths, 2,000 injured, 1,000 damaged buildings, and $1 billion in damage. Rodney pleaded, "People, I just want to say, can we all get along?" King was found dead in his pool two years ago.
Colin Powell became the first black to hold the office of Secretary of State. He has been the first black in every position he has held since he served as lieutenant general and assistant to the president for National Security Affairs under Bush Sr.
Barack Obama became the first African- American president and is currently serving his second term of office.
On April 4, 1968, Martin Luther King Jr. was shot dead from the balcony of his motel room. Following his death, violent outbreaks were abundant, resulting in 40 deaths nationwide. James Earl Ray admitted to the assassination an was sentenced to 99 years in prison. Today he is seen as a figurehead of the civil rights movement and is commemorated on the third Monday in January each year, which is around his birthday, January 15.
In 1890, Louisiana passed a law that provided separate railway cars for whites and colored people and required that the cars stay so. In P
lessy v Ferguson the constitutionality of this law was decided by the Supreme Court. Homer Plessy was the plaintiff of the case and was seven eighths white and one eighth black and had the appearance of a normal white man. Due to the minority of his heritage, he was arrested and imprisoned for sitting in a vacant seat in the white car of a train on its way to Covington, LA from New Orleans. After Brown was convicted by the courts there, he petitioned it, telling the Supreme Court that the decision violated the Equal Protection Clause of Amendment 14. However, the court rule against Brown, making the case a landmark setback in the achieving of African American civil rights.
The NAACP, or National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, was founded on February 12th, 1909 by a group of sixty black and white American activists. The group was initially focused on ending lynching, or hanging, but their lobbying efforts could not persuade Congress to pass anti-lynching laws. Later, in 1940, the legal branch of the NAACP was created and Thurgood Marshall was given main authority over it. The group went on to win the Brown v. Board of Education case in 1954. Soon after, the NAACP supported the Montgomery Bus Boycott by providing lawyers and paying legal costs, throughout 1956. The NAACP continued to be a powerhouse throughout the decades and partnered with a number of other groups and individuals, such as Martin Luther King Jr. Despite being nearly a century old, the NAACP is still the strongest national multiracial voice for political, educational, social, and economic equality.
Jackie Robinson Intgrates the MLB
On April 15th, Jackie Robinson was drafted by the Brooklyn Dodgers and became the first black player to ever be drafted into Major League Baseball.
President Truman's Executive Order
President Truman issues an executive order to outlaw segregation in the United States military.
Student Strike at Moton High School
Students at Robert Russa Moton High School, in Farmville, Virginia, staged a walkout in protest of their learning conditions, which were much worse than those enjoyed by white students at nearby Farmville High School.
Brown v. Board of Education
The decision in the Brown v. Board court case of Topeka, Kansas was a landmark of sorts in the minds of those sent on integration. The case’s main plaintiff was Oliver Brown, who was chosen, in part, by the NAACP because of his respectable history of community work and service. He was the parent of a child who had been rejected from their closest neighborhood school for the fall 1951 school term and sent instead to a segregated school, like the other thirteen parents involved in the suit. This case was one of many that the NAACP filed, however, it was unique. No one in this case argued that the separate schools in Topeka had inequivalent facilities, curriculum or staff, but instead argued that the “separate but equal” clause made public education have a highly negative effect on African-American children. At the end of the case, the decision by the courts was unanimous. They ruled that state laws establishing the segregation of public schools was unconstitutional; thus overturning the infamous ruling of the Plessy v. Ferguson case many years earlier.
Emmett Till Murder
Emmett Till, a fourteen year old from
Chicago, was kidnapped, beaten, shot and then dumped into the Tallahatchie River because he allegedly whistled a white women.
Montgomery Bus Boycotts
On December 1st, 1955, African-American women Rosa Parks refused to give up her bus seat to a white man, thus beginning the Montgomery Bus Boycott. The boycott was organized by the Montgomery Improvement Association(MIA) and Martin Luther King Jr. The boycott provided a good point for the nonviolent masses to protest racial segregation. On December 1st, 90 percent of blacks were off of the Montgomery buses in an attempt to publicize the boycott in weekend newspapers, television programs, and radio programs. Then on December 8th, the MIA issued a formal list of demands to city officials, asking for: courteous treatment by bus operators; first-come, first-served seating for all, with blacks seating from the rear and whites from the front; and black bus operators on predominantly black routes. Such demands were not met by the city and, despite great efforts to end the boycott, its black citizens stayed off the bus through 1956. However, word had gotten out of Alabama. The national coverage had caused for there to be supporters outside of the southern state. This support, along with the help of many others, caused for the Supreme Court to rule that bus segregation was unconstitutional in June of 1956.
Massive Resistance Declared
In February, a policy of “massive resistance” was declared by Congress in reference to the south, where laws had been enacted to punished integrated state schools and give funding for all-white private schools as a reaction to the attempts at desegregation.
Little Rock Nine
In 1957, the Little Rock School District decided that its first attempt at desegregating their schools would occur at Central High School in September. Nine African-American students, Ernest Green, Elizabeth Eckford, Jefferson Thomas, Terrence Roberts, Carlotta Walls, Minniejean Brown, Gloria Ray, Thelma Mothershed and Melba Pattill, volunteered themselves to be the subjects of this test. However, it was not to go smoothly. With many whites in the area opposed to integration, Senator Orval Faubus called in Arkansas's national guard to prevent the black students from entering the school on the first day of classes. After this, a district court ordered that the desegregation to commence the next day, but Faubus ignored the federal order. The students had to repeatedly face an angry mob who shouted, spat, and screamed at them. President Eisenhower then forced the withdrawal of troops on September 20th, however the white mob overpowered the Little Rock police, causing the students to be kept out of the school yet again. Finally, after Eisenhower had called in national troops to protect the nine children, they were allowed to finally enjoy the privileges of the better school; despite the obvious dissent of many within Little Rock.
A series of sit-ins were staged in protest of local restaurants that refused to serve African Americans in Greensboro, South Carolina.
In the spring , student volunteers from the north began traveling into the south in order to test out the new segregation laws for public transportation. These groups are brutally attacked by angry mobs on their way