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Washington and Adams
Transcript of Washington and Adams
Federalist battle Dem. Republicans
Federalist pushed through 4 laws know as the Alien & Sedition Acts – were designed to destroy Jefferson’s Democratic-Republicans
3 were aimed @ aliens – people living in the country who are not citizens
Immigrants could not become citizens for 14 years (rather than 5), thus weakening the republican party. (Why? French & Irish immigrants tended to vote republican.)
Gave the President the power to imprison or deport immigrants deemed dangerous to the U.S. w/out a trial.
Prevented Sedition – an incitement leading to a rebellion.
Made it unlawful to say or print anything false or scandalous against the government or its officers.
These Sedition Acts virtually destroyed the First Amendment rights outline under the Constitution.
Bolstered support for the republicans in 1800 election.
Alien & Sedition Acts
First Coast Guard, known as “the cutters”, was established in 1790.
FYI - The Cutters
1798 – Congress suspended trade w/ France & ordered the navy to capture French ships.
= undeclared war at sea was called the Quasi-War.
Convention of 1800 - negotiations w/ France led to an agreement
U.S. gave up all claims against France for damages to American shipping.
France released the U.S. from the Treaty of 1778
Quasi-War w/ France
Who won the election of 1796?
Election of 1796
Americans moved in large numbers to the area between Appalachian Mountains & the MS River because of abundant land, fertile soil, wide rivers, & a variety of fish game.
Increase of white settlers led to tension w/ Na. Am.
Little Turtle – chief of the Miami people of the Northwest Territory - formed a confederacy of several Na. Am. Groups against the white settlers.
After 2 battles in which American troops were defeated, Na. Am. Resistance was put down by AM. Troops under General Anthony Wayne
1795 – 12 Na. Am. Nations signed the Treaty of Greenville.
Na. Am. Gave up parts of what later became Ohio & Indiana for a yearly payment of $10,000 from the federal government.
Treaty allowed for more settlers to move into the region
Thomas Pinckney negotiated a treaty w/ Spain
Recognized U.S. borders @ the Mississippi & the 31st Parallel – northern border of Florida (Spanish possession)
Agreed to allow the U.S. free navigation of MS River to the Gulf of Mexico & granted the right of deposit in New Orleans for 3 years
Both nations agreed not to incite Na. Am. Attacks against each other
Supported by Western farmers
Pinckney’s Treaty 1795
Missing from the treaty
a refrain from arrest the arrest of American ships
impressment of American seamen
Hamilton was stoned by an angry crowd in N.Y.
Senate ratified w/ provision limiting trade in the British West Indies
Washington reluctantly approves
Raised concerns in Spain
Felt that the British & Americans might join forces to take over Spanish holdings in N. Am.
Americans object . . .
Federalist vs. Republicans, cont.
The split in Congress over Hamilton’s financial plan resulted in the formation of two political parties: Federalist & Democratic-Republicans.
Hamilton Vs. Jefferson
1791 – Hamilton proposes a tax on the manufacturing of American whiskey
Passed by Congress
Outraged western farmers
Whiskey Rebellion begins – 1794
Washington sent 13,000 troops to stop the rebellion
Hamilton also asked Congress to create a national bank so that the government could manage its debts & interest payments
Southerners felt on the Northerners could afford the bank’s stock
Madison felt Congress couldn’t est. a bank because it was not with in the Constitution’s enumerated powers – powers specifically mentioned in the Constitution
Hamilton's Plan Passes
Opposed this Hamilton’s plan because they felt that paying “full-value” on bonds would reward the speculators
Southerners were upset because Northerners owned the bonds while the tax money used to pay off the debt would come from the South.
1790 Southerners were convinced to vote for Hamilton’s plan in return for the relocation of the U.S. capital to a southern location called the District of Columbia
Jefferson & Madison
James Madison & Alexander Hamilton developed 2 very different plans to help finance the government
James Madison felt the government should raise money by taxing imports from other countries
Tariff of 1789
Made all importers pay 5% of value of their cargo when they landed in the U.S.
Shippers required to pay a tax depending on how much their ships carried
Angered many Southern planters; began feeling the government didn’t have their best interest in mind
2 very different plans
By 1789 the government needed additional monies to continue to operate
Faced a national debt – money the U.S. owed to lenders
Owed $11.7 million to foreign creditors
Owed $40.4 million to U.S. Citizens
Some Revolutionary debt was in the form of bonds – certificates that represent money
These bonds had been issued w/ the promise of interest
Bondholders feared that the government would not buy back the bonds
Speculators (individuals who bought the bonds @ a low value in hopes the value would rise) – purchased the bonds from individuals for below value prices
Financing Our New Government
Only New York City & Philadelphia had populations greater than 25,000
New York City served as the 1st U.S. capital
Nearly 4 Million Americans
Most lived in rural areas & worked on farms
Some lived in towns as craftspeople, laborers, or merchants
Farmers wanted fair tax laws & the right to settle western lands
Merchants wanted simpler trade laws
Manufacturers wanted laws to protect them from foreign competition
A Snapshot of America in 1790
1791 – 10 Amendments to the Constitution goes into effect
1st 8 – offered safeguards for individual rights against actions of the federal government
9th – states that people have rights other than the ones listed
10th – states that powers not specifically reserved for the Federal Government would be reserved for the states
Bill of Rights
Hoped to retire from public life after the ratification of the Constitution
Friends urged him to run for president
Believed he would make an excellent leader
Agreed because he felt it was his duty
January 1789 – delegates from the 11 states that had ratified the Constitution formed the 1st electoral college – made up the electors who vote for president
Washington unanimously elected
John Adams – 1st Vice-President
Father of America
George Washington Speech
French, angry over Jay’s Treaty, stopped American ships & seized goods while en route to Britain.
Federalist called for war against France
Instead, Adams sent negotiators to France.
Tensions increased. Why?
France demanded bribes from the Americans before they would negotiate, in what became known as the XYZ Affair
Stressed the importance of religion & morality
“Where the security for property, for reputation, for life, if the sense of religious obligation desert the oaths (if we leave religion out of it), which are the instruments of investigation in Courts of Justice?”
Warned against misuse of public credit
“Cherish public credit. . . .One method of preserving it is to use it as sparingly as possible. . . Avoid the accumulation of debt. . . .”
Warned against permanent foreign alliances
“It is our true policy to steer clear of permanent alliances w/ any portion of the foreign world . . .”
On an over-powerful military establishment
“. . . Avoid the necessity of those overgrown military establishments, which, under any form of government, are inauspicious to liberty, & which are to be regarded as particularly hostile to Republican Liberty.”
Continued . . .
Washington retires from office after being irritated by party politics & attacks on his character.
Washington’s Farewell Address
Listed the benefits of the federal government
“The unity of government . . . is a main pillar in the edifice [foundation] of your real independence . . . of your tranquility @ home, your peace abroad; of your safety, of your property, of that very liberty which you so highly prize.”
Warns against the party system
“It (parties) agitates (stirs up) the Community w/ ill-founded jealousies kindles the animosity (anger) of one . . . Against another. . . .it opens the door to foreign influence & corruption . . .”
Washington’s Farewell Address
“Let it be remembered that civil liberty consist, not in a right to every man to do just what he pleases, but it consist in an equal right to all citizens to have, enjoy, and do, in peace, security & without molestation, whatever the equal & constitutional laws of the country admit to be consistent w/ the public good.”
Although still admired, Washington came under sharp attack
John Jay resigned from the Supreme Court
Led to Pinckney’s Treaty (1795)
Fallout over Treaty
Wanting to avoid war, Washington sent John Jay to Britain to find a solution
France Revolution – (French Civil War) began in 1789, shortly after Washington was inaugurated
Americans were divided over the French Rev.
Federalist opposed it because of the violence
Republicans supported it because of the fight for liberty
1793 – French declared war on Britain
Forced Washington to issue a proclamation stating that the U.S. would remain neutral – friendly & impartial between the 2
British navy intercepted neutral ships, including American ships carrying goods to France
Washington’s Foreign Policy
Hamilton argued that the bank fell under the “elastic clause” (necessary & proper clause) – powers that are implied & not specifically mentioned in the Constitution
Congress passes the bill forming the bank
Bank of the United States
Born in the West Indies
Went to American colonies for his education
Secretary of Treasurer under Washington’s administration
Wanted to pay off the foreign debt immediately
Buy back bonds @ full prices
Bank of the U.S. (founded 1791, closed 1811)
Believed that bond owners would have a stake in the government’s success & be willing to loan $$ in the future
Supported the Tariff of 1789
Believed in the government’s ability to borrow money
Hamilton’s Financial Program
Northwest frontier war w/ Native Americans was won
Britain surrendered its forts in the Northwest
Spain opened the Mississippi to American commerce
George Washington’s Cabinet
Thomas Jefferson – Secretary of State
Alexander Hamilton – Treasury Secretary
General Henry Knox – Secretary of War
Edmund Randolph – Attorney General
What were George Washington’s major achievements while in the Presidency?
The 1st President
First Political Parties
Null & Void
VA – introduced interposition – “ . . . If the fed’l gov.t did something unconstitutional , the state could interpose between the fed’l gov.t & the people to stop the illegal action
Kentucky – advanced the theory of nullification – “ . . . If the fed’l gov.’t passed an unconstitutional law, the states had the right to nullify the law or declare it invalid
States respond . . .
Gave Britain the right to seize American cargo heading to France
Britain gave America “Most Favored Nation” status – would not discriminate against when they traded w/ Britain
Set the w/drawal of British soldiers from posts in the American west
Est. a commission to settle outstanding border issues between the U.S. & Canada
Est. a commission to resolve American losses in British ship seizures & Loyalist losses during the American Revolution
How Did the issue of States' Rights Arise at this time?
Discuss with a partner, Identify one way in which Adams ignored Washington's warnings.