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Copy of 7.05 Le Châtelier’s Principle- The Ostwald Process
Transcript of Copy of 7.05 Le Châtelier’s Principle- The Ostwald Process
By Liana Juarez
Born September 2nd, 1853
Birthplace: Riga, Latvia
Life and Research
Ostwald began his research, as well as his experimental work in 1875.
Some of his main investigations included: the law of mass action of water in relation to the problems of chemical affinity, with special emphasis on electrochemistry and chemical dynamics.
Nobel Prize in
In 1909 Ostwald was awarded the Nobel Prize for Chemistry for his work on catalysis, chemical equilibria and reaction velocities.
The Ostwald process involves reacting ammonia with the oxygen in air to produce nitrogen dioxide. The nitrogen dioxide then reacts with water to produce nitric acid. The process requires a platinum catalyst which glows red because the process releases a great amount of heat.
How it happens:
Ammonia is converted to nitric acid in two stages:
*First ammonia is oxidized by heating together with oxygen
*Stage two is carried out in the presence of water in an absorption apparatus. Then nitric oxide is heated with oxygen once again to yield nitrogen dioxide.
*This gas is then by the water, yielding the nitric acid as the product of the reactions.
The process requires a platinum catalyst.
The Ostwlad process is exothermic.
Because it releases a great amount of energy, the platinum catalyst glows red when it is reacting.
How we would this describe this process in chemistry:
4 NO2 + O2 + 2 H2O 4 HNO3(aq)
Le Châtelier’s principle suggests that if a change is imposed in a system at equilibrium, the position of the equilibrium will shift in the direction that helps to reduce the effect on that change.
What it means:
The position of the equilibrium will shift in the direction that tends to reduce the impact of that change.
4 NH3 + 5 O2 → 4 NO + 6 H2O
2 NO + O2 → 2 NO2
4 NO2 + O2 + 2 H2O → 4 HNO3(aq)
The reaction involves a decrease in volume, meaning that according to Le Chatelier's principle it will be cause an increase in pressure.
The Ostwald process is used world-wide for the production of nitric acid.
The proper installations for the production of said product are indeed costly, and require many precautions and protections against toxic, hazardous wastes.