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Building Skyscrapers

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by

Savannah Cook

on 17 October 2012

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Transcript of Building Skyscrapers


Building Skyscrapers Foundation By: Savannah and CiCi Home Insurance Building Built in 1884 in Chicago, IL.
Architect was William Le Baron Jenney.
Destroyed in 1931 to make room for another building.
It was the first building to use structural steel in its frame.
The majority of the building was cast and wrought iron.
It is considered to be the first skyscraper in the world; though it was never the tallest.
It had 10 stories and was 138 feet tall.
In 1890 two more stories were added onto the building making the building a total of 180 feet tall. The Tallest Skyscraper today Today, the tallest skyscraper is the Burj Khalifa.
- located in Dubai
- tallest man made structure in the world.
- 2, 723 feet tall
Construction for this building started in September of 2004, was completed on October 1, 2009 and opened in January of 2010.
To support the height of the new building, engineers had to develop a new structural system called the buttressed core.
It included a hexagonal core reinforced by three buttresses that form a 'Y' shape. This system keeps the structure from twisting. In design now It has been said that a new skyscraper will be making its way to being built. 'Kingdom Tower', formally named the 'Mile high tower'. It is designed by the same architect that designed Burj Khalifa, Adrian Smith. It will break the record of the Burj Khalifa and be the world's tallest building. It would also be the first structure to read the one kilometer mark. Originally the tower was planned to be 1mile high, but the area where it is planned to be built is unsuitable for a tower that high. Now the said height for the tower will be around 3,300 feet. The tower will hold a triangular shape to it. Work for the foundation is said to start late this year and be completed in 2017. History Technology advances in the late 19th century made it possible for the development of skyscrapers.

The taller the structure, the thicker the walls had to be.
-eliminated by the steel frame structure When designing a building, it must be able to support its own weight and the weight that would be added to it from furniture and people.

For skyscrapers, the force of wind affects the structure more than the building and contents. Structural elements to be sure that the building is stable enough not to collapse or sway too much from wind.
steel skeleton
reinforced concrete skeleton
a central concrete core
array of support columns connected horizontal beams

"There's not a precise formula for how much sway a building has, but there is a maximum [amount], which is 1/500 of the building's height." Foundation is part of the skyscraper below ground.
It reaches to solid rock
steel/concrete beams and columns are placed into the rock dissipates the energy created by the motion of the mass
f=m/a
wind is the external forces against the building with means there has to be acceleration.

The TMDs are placed in the structure where the force would be felt the greatest.

If wind was coming from the right against the building, forcing the building in that direction the TMD would act against it to the left, leveling it out. (TMD) tuned mass damper Since 9/11 and the twin towers collapsing, architects and engineers have used more concrete in their designs. Most skyscrapers now have a thick concrete core. Fire is the main reason for the towers collapsing. The towers had drywall framing the steel structure. Now that is replaced with the concrete. Having a different core and bolted beams in the structure, eliminates the need of columns now. Every structure begins by the blueprints.

Designs are drawn on a scale of which the actual measurements will be.

Measurements must be precise in order for the constructors to follow and successfully build the structure. Structure Today skyscrapers have the structure of it bolted together and beams are added to get rid of the need to have columns. Our model of a skyscraper foundation: 1 1/8" 112.5ft
superstructure: 11 3/4" 1175 ft
Levels Width
1st: 2 1/2" (250 ft) 5 5/8"(62.5 ft)
2nd: 2 1/8"(212.5 ft) 4"(400 ft)
3rd: 2 1/8" (212.5 ft) 3/4"(375 ft)
4th: 2 1/4" (225 ft) 2 3/4"(275 ft)
5th: 1 9/16" (156.25 ft) 2 1/2"(250 ft)
6th: 1" (100 ft) 3/4"(75 ft)
26 floors Our scale for today's skyscrapers

1/8"= 12.5 ft
1"=100 ft
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