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BIBLE BASICS 2017

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Transcript of BIBLE BASICS 2017

PART I: WHAT IS THE BIBLE?
PART II: WHAT IS THE OLD TESTAMENT
PART III: WHAT IS THE NEW TESTAMENT?
BIBLE BASICS STRUCTURE
THE BIBLE IS MANY THINGS, TO MANY PEOPLE:
THE BIBLE IS
NOT
AN ACCOUNT OF
WORLD HISTORY

The books of the bible were not written in chronological order.
PART I:
WHAT IS THE BIBLE?
2017
BIBLE BASICS
A peek into the past.
A literary work.
A study guide.
A devotional.
A revelation from God.
The Bible is a Collection of World Views
TIME


PEOPLE


SITUATION


Bible as a Collection of Different Worldviews
Collection of books written:

by different people
at different times
dealing with different situations
Bible as a Collection of Different Worldviews
OLD TESTAMENT
39 books
reflecting the worldview of the people of Israel
to describe their encounters with God and their neighbors
ANCIENT NEAR
Bible as a Collection of Different Worldviews
NEW TESTAMENT
27 books
written by different people
to share their understanding of God through the man:
Jesus of Nazareth
Religion was not in a vacuum.
Religion was not standardized and systematized in ways that are familiar to us.
Each city-state had its own cult and assembly of gods, headed by the chief god or goddess of that city.
The status of gods rose and fell with the fortunes of their city-states.
Corpus of literature that circulated widely in the ancient Near East (myths =story).
Scholars see similarities between OT & ANE.
Enuma Elish (creation) and Gilgamesh (flood).
EASTERN RELIGION
TRACING THE ISRAELITES THROUGH ANCIENT HISTORY
922
722
539
586
ca. 1000
ca. 1250
922
beginning of the divided monarchy (Israel: North, Judah: South)
722
fall of the northern kingdom;
Assyrian conquest of Israel
586
fall of the southern kingdom-Babylonian conquest of Judah;
destruction of the first temple; beginning of Babylonian exile
539
end of exile; return permitted to Jerusalem
(Conquest of Babylon by Persia)
ca. 1250
Exodus from Egypt (disputed)
ca. 1000
beginning of united monarchy
515
dedication of second temple
515
70 C.E.
destruction of second temple
70 C.E.
CHRONOLOGY OF ISRAEL
ANCIENT NEAR EASTERN REGION
Timeline of the Writing Of
THE PENTATEUCH & THE HISTORICAL BOOKS
960-930 B.C.E.
first draft of
the main stories
of the Pentateuch
were written.
900-850 B.C.E.
another draft of the
main stories of the
Pentateuch were
written by another
group of authors.
622-609 B.C.E.
another draft of the
main stories of the
Pentateuch were
written by another
group of authors.
561 B.C.E.
a second and final
revision including
the Books of Joshua,
Judges, 1 & 2 Kings.
Timeline of the Writing Of
THE GOSPELS AND PAUL'S LETTERS

Crucifixion of Jesus

Paul's letters written

date for Gospel of Mark

Destruction of temple
in Jerusalem in war
against Rome


Date for Gospel of
Matthew and Luke/
Acts of the Apostles
30 C.E.
49-60 C.E.
65-70 C.E.
70 C.E.
80-90 C.E.
90-100 C.E.

Date for Gospel of
John &
Revelation
CREATION STORIES
ENUMA ELISH
GENESIS 1
When the skies were not
yet named
Nor the earth below pronounced by name
Apsu, the first one, their
begetter
And maker Tiama, who bore them all,
Had mixed their waters
together,
But had not formed pastures,
nor discovered reed-beds;
When yet no gods were
manifest,
Nor names pronounced, nor
destinies decreed,
The gods were born within them.
1 In the beginning when God created
the heavens and the earth, 2 the earth
was a formless void and darkness covered the face of the deep, while a wind from God swept over the face of the waters. 3 Then God said, "Let there be light"; and there was light. 4 And God saw that the light was good; and darkness. 5 God called the light Day, and the darkness he called Night. And there was evening and there was morning, the first day. 6 And God said, "Let there be a dome in the midst of the waters, and let it separate the waters from the waters." 7 So God made the dome and separated the waters that were above the dome. And it was so. 8 God called the dome Sky. And there was evening and there was morning, the second day.
THE EPIC OF GILGAMESH AND NOAH
COMPARISON OF GENESIS AND GILGAMESH
ORAL HISTORY BEFORE WRITTEN HISTORY
Before the stories of the bible were written, some of the stories circulated as oral history.
Poetry, Song & the Oral Tradition
Ancient Scroll
Ancient manuscripts do not:
SCRIPTUA CONTINUO
lastnightatdinnerisawabundanceonthetable

All the females of the
class wrote:
A woman: without her,
man is nothing.

All the males in the
class wrote:
A woman, without her man, is nothing.

A woman without her man is nothing


Punctuation is
powerful.



Original biblical books were not written
in English.
Original biblical books were written in native tongue of authors, not English.
Book of Joshua in Greek. Egypt, late 2nd century.

A HISTORY OF THE ENGLISH BIBLE
Versions of the Bible
Which version of the bible do you read? Why?

NRSV & MESSAGE BIBLE TRANSLATIONS
Message Bible
NRSV
"Don't be nitpickers; use your head–and–heart!–to discern what is right, to test what is authentically right."
John 7:24
"Do not judge by appearances, but judge with right judgement."


John 7:24
PART II:
WHAT IS THE OLD TESTAMENT?
TESTAMENT:
DICTIONARY
1. refers to a covenant between God and the human race.
2. originates from the
Latin word "testari"
which means to be
a witness or a call to
witness.
Hebrew Bible Order of Books
Torah:

Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers and Deuteronomy
Prophets (Former):
Joshua, 1 & 2 Kings
Prophets (Latter):
Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel
Minor Prophets ("The Twelve"):
Hosea, Joel, Amos, Obadiah, Jonah, Micah, Nahum, Habakkuk, Zephaniah, Haggai, Zechariah, Malachi
Writings:
Psalms, Job, Song of Songs, Ruth, Lamentations, Qoheleth (Ecclesiastes), Esther, Daniel, Ezra-Nehemiah, 1 & 2 Chronicles.
Protestant Old Testament Order of Books
The Law:
Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers and Deuteronomy

Historical Books:
Joshua, Ruth, 1 Samuel, 2 Samuel, 1 kings, 2 Kings, 1 Chronicles, Ezra, Nehemiah, Esther

Poetical and Wisdom Literature:
Job, Psalms, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Song of Solomon

Prophets:
Isaiah, Jeremiah, Lamentations, Ezekiel, Daniel, Hosea, Joel, Amos, Obadiah, Jonah, Micah, Habbakuk, Zephaniah, Haggai, Zechariah, Malachi
WRITING OF THE PENTATEUCH & HISTORICAL BOOKS
TIMELINE
960-930 BCE First draft of the main stories of the Pentateuch were written.
900-850 BCE Another draft of the main stories of the Pentateuch were writ by another group of authors.
622-609 BCE The basis for the book of Deuteronomy was written by another group of authors.
561 BCE A second and final revision including the Books of Joshua, Judges, 1 & 2 Kings
550-450 BCE Additional stories are written. This version is eventually redacted with earlier versions.
OLD TESTAMENT
,
HEBREW BIBLE
AND
FIRST TESTAMENT
:
ARE THEY ALL THE SAME?
The
Old Testament
is the canon of the
first

section of the Christian Bible.
heavily based on the Hebrew Bible
The
Hebrew Bible
is the Jewish canon, also referred to as the
T
a
n
a
k
.
Torah (The Law)
Nebim (The Prophets)
Ketubim (The Writings)
COMPARISON
OF
OLD TESTAMENT
CANONS
THE LAW – TORAH – PENTATEUCH
GENESIS
EXODUS
LEVITICUS
NUMBERS
DEUTERONOMY
COVENANT:
A binding agreement between two or more parties for the performance of some action.
Genesis 17:7 - I will establish my covenant between me and you, and your offspring after you throughout their generations, for an everlasting, to be god to you and to your offspring after you.
LAW OF MOSES
...just as Moses the servant of the Lord had commanded the Israelites, as it is written in the book of the law of Moses.
Joshua 8:31
PENTATEUCH
The term "Pentateuch" comes from the Greek term
Pent teuchos
meaning "five volumed book)."
WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN:
THE LAW
THE PENTATEUCH
THE LAW OF MOSES
?
DID MOSES WRITE THE TORAH?
And Moses the servant of the Lord died there in Moab, as the Lord had said. He buried him in Moab, in the valley opposite Beth Peor, but to this day no one knows where his grave is.
Deuteronomy 34:5-6
DOCUMENTARY HYPOTHESIS
Early Oral and Written Sources
922 BCE
722 BCE
Jahwist

J
E
Elohist

JE
J & E were joined
D
P
Deuteronomist
Priestly
400 BCE
539 BCE
JEPD
J, E, P & D were joined to create the Torah
DOCUMENTARY HYPOTHESIS
J SOURCE
Tetragrammaton: YHWH
YHWH is the abbreviation for YAHWEH, which is LORD in English.
E SOURCE
ELOHIM is how the E
source described God.
An Example of Multiple Authorship:
Two Accounts of Noah's Ark
Another Example of Multiple Authorship:
Two Creation Stories in the Book of Genesis
Who has the authority to interpret scripture?
Do you think we should interpret scripture the way it has always been interpreted?
THE HISTORICAL BOOKS
JOSHUA

JUDGES

RUTH

1 SAMUEL

2 SAMUEL

1 KINGS
2 KINGS

1 CHRONICLES

2 CHRONICLES

EZRA

NEHEMIAH

ESTHER
POETICAL & WISDOM BOOKS
Poetical Literature
Psalms
Song of Solomon
Wisdom Literature
Job
Proverbs
Ecclesiastes
Is language limiting?
Anthropomorphism & Personification
an.thro.po.mor.phism
the attribution of human characteristics or behavior to
a god, animal, or object
per.son.i.fi.ca.tion
the attribution of a personal nature or human characteristics to something nonhuman or the representation of an abstract quality in human form
They heard the sound of the
LORD God walking in the garden
at the time of the evening... the
LORD God called to the man,
and said to him, "Where are
you?"
- Genesis 3:8-10
God is spirit, and those who
worship him, must worship in
spirit and truth.
-John 4:24

TYPES OF PSALMS
Lament
Psalms 3-6; 9-13; 16-17;
22-23; 25-27
A passionate
expression of grief
Praise
Psalms 8; 19:1-6; 29; 33
PSALMS
Psalms 1; 19:7-114; 37; 49; 73; 78
OLD TESTAMENT PROPHETS
Isaiah
Jeremiah
(Lamentations)
Ezekiel
Daniel
Hosea
Joel
Amos
Obadiah
Jonah
Micah
Nahum
Habakuk
Zephaniah
Haggai
Zechariah
Malachi
* Indicates major prophets
* Indicates minor prophets
SEPTUAGINT
"Septuagint" originates from the Greek word for
'seventy,' because of the tradition that seventy scholars worked on it.
PART III: WHAT IS THE
NEW TESTAMENT?
THE BIBLE AS A COLLECTION OF DIFFERENT
WORLD VIEWS
New Testament

27 books

written in Greek

between 50 and 120 C.E.

represents multiple meanings and understandings of God and Jesus of Nazareth
ANTHOLOGY

an.thol.o.gy
a published collection of poems or other pieces of writing
Books of the New Testament
Gospels:
Matthew
Mark
Luke
John
History of the Early Church:
Acts
Pauline Epistles:
Romans
1 Corinthians
2 Corinthians
Galatians
Ephesians
Philippians
Colossians
1 Thessalonians
2 Thessalonians
Philemon
1 Timothy
2 Timothy
Titus
General Epistles:
Hebrews
James
1 Peter
2 Peter
1 John
2 John
3 John
Jude
Revelation
TIMELINE OF THE WRITING OF THE GOSPELS
AND PAUL'S LETTERS
4 BCE
Birth date
of Jesus

30 CE
49-60 CE
65-70 CE
80-90 CE
90-100 CE
Gospel of Matthew and Acts

Paul's
letters
written

Crucifixion
of Jesus

Gospel
of Mark

Gospel
of John
LUKE 1:1-4
"So many others have tried their hand at putting together a story of the wonderful harvest of Scripture and history that took place among us, using reports handed down by the original eyewitnesses who served this Word with their very lives. Since I have investigated all the reports in close detail, starting from the story's beginning, I decided to write it all out for you, most honorable Theophilus, so you can know beyond the shadow of a doubt the reliability of what you were taught."
Message Bible
GOSPEL
"Gospel" is the English translation of the Greek word
euanggelion
(yoo-ang-ghel-ee-on) which literally means "good news."
NAMING THE GOSPELS - MARK
Your sister church in Babylon, chosen together with you, sends you greetings; and so does my son Mark.
-1 Peter 5:13
NAMING THE GOSPELS - LUKE
"Luke, the beloved

physician, and

Demas greet you."

-Colossians 4:14
NAMING THE GOSPELS - JOHN
When Jesus saw his mother and the disciple
whom he loved standing beside her, he said
to his mother, "Woman, here is your son."
-John 19:26
THE SYNOPTIC GOSPELS
se.näptik: "seen together" or "same"
Matthew: 14:3-4
For Herod had
arrested John,
bound him, and
put him in prison
on account of
Herodias, his brother
Phillip's wife, because
John had been telling
him, 'it's not lawful
for you to have her.'
Mark 6:17-18
For Herod himself
had sent men who
arrested John, bound
him, and put him in
prison on account of
Herodias, his brother
Phillip's wife, because
Herod had married her.
For John had been
telling Herod, 'it is not
lawful for you to have
your brother's wife.'
Luke 3:19-20
But Herod the
ruler, who had been
rebuked by him
because of Herodias,
his brother's wife,
and because of all
the evil things that
Herod had done,
added to them all
by shutting up John
in prison.
JESUS OF NAZARETH
"Christ" is the Greek word for the Hebrew word "Messiah."

"Messiah" means anointed one (1 Samuel & Psalm 2)

The term "Christ" is a title, as "Rabbi" and "Pastor" are titles.
JESUS WAS A JEW
Matthew 10:5-6
5 These twelve Jesus sent out with the following instructions: “Go nowhere among the Gentiles, and enter no town of the Samaritans, 6 but go rather to the lost sheep of the house of Israel.
John 9:22
22 His parents said this because they were afraid of the Jews; for the Jews had already agreed that anyone who confessed Jesus[a] to be the Messiah[b] would be put out of the synagogue.
Luke 2:21
21 After eight days had passed, it was time to circumcise the child; and he was called Jesus, the name given by the angel before he was conceived in the womb.
THE WORD CHRISTIAN SHOWS UP FOR THE
FIRST TIME IN...
ACTS 11:26
26 and when he had found him, he brought him to Antioch. So it was that for an entire year they met with[a] the church and taught a great many people, and it was in Antioch that the disciples were first called “Christians.”
PAULINE EPISTLES
ROMANS

1 CORINTHIANS

2 CORINTHIANS

GALATIANS

EPHESIANS

PHILIPPIANS

COLOSSIANS
1 THESSALONIANS

2 THESSALONIANS

1 TIMOTHY

2 TIMOTHY

TITUS

PHILEMON
WOMEN IN PAUL'S LETTER TO THE CHURCH
AT PHILIPPI

I urge Euodia and I urge Syntyche to be of the
same mind in the Lord. Yes, and I ask you
also, my loyal companion, help these women,
for they have struggled beside me in the work of the gospel...

Philippians 4:2-3
WOMEN IN PAUL'S LETTER TO THE CHURCH AT GALATIA
...There is no longer Jew or Greek, there is no longer slave or free,
there is no longer male and female; for all of you are one in Christ Jesus
...
Galatians 3:26-29
WOMEN IN PAUL'S LETTER TO THE CHURCH AT CORINTH
Women should be silent in the churches. For they are not permitted to speak, but should be subordinate, as the law also says. If there is anything they desire to know, let them ask their husbands at home. For it is shameful for a woman to speak in church.
1 Corinthians 14:34-36
What does it mean to you to learn of the occasional nature of Paul's letters?
General
Epistles

Hebrews
James
1 Peter
2 Peter
1 John
2 John
3 John
Jude
Revelation
"Scarlet beast that was full of
blasphemous names, and it had
seven heads and ten horns."
-Revelation 17:14
What does all of this symbolism mean?
"Drunk with the blood of the saints"
-Revelation 17:6
"On her forehead was written a mystery."
-Revelation 17:5
REVELATION OF JOHN
REVELATION
A literary style containing symbolism in the form of dreams or visions.
Apocalypse is a Greek word, meaning "unveiling" or "revealing."
Revelation was written in the apocalyptic literary style which was common in antiquity.
Apocalyptic literature includes Daniel, Ezekiel and even some parts of the Gospels.
Apocalypse:
REVELATION 17:3
"...and I saw a woman sitting on a scarlet
beast that was full of blasphemous names, and it had seven heads and ten horns."
(Revelation 17:3)
John writes to seven churches in Asia Minor (modern day Turkey).
These churches were persecuted because they worshiped differently.
John needed to encourage them to hold onto hope that persecution would come to an end.
REVELATION 17:18
"The woman you saw is the great city that rules over the kings of the earth" -Revelation 17:8
This great city oppressed and exploited the common people of the ancient world.
Most people in the ancient world were poor and barely made a living.
The seven heads of the beast represents the "seven hills of Rome." The oppressor is Rome. (Revelation 17:9)
How did the New Testament come to be?
CANON: from Greek word meaning "rule" or "straight edge."
Designates any recognized collection of texts; the canon of the New Testament is thus the collection of books that Christians accept as authoritative.
GOSPEL OF THOMAS
15. Jesus said, "When you see one who was not born of woman, fall on your faces and worship. That one is your Father."
3. Jesus said,..."The (Father's) kingdom is within you.
KEY EVENTS IN THE HISTORY OF THE CANONIZATION OF THE NEW TESTAMENT
100-399 CE
325 CE
357 CE
381 CE
431 CE
451 CE
Debate over which books to include in the NT
3rd Ecumenical Council at Ephesus: Affirmed that Jesus' mother Mary was the Birth Giver of God rather than simply the Mother of Christ.
2nd Ecumenical Council of Constantinople: reaffirmed the Nicene Creed.
Bishop Athanasius creates list of the 27 books of the NT. These eventually become the official NT canon.
1st Ecumenical Council at Nicaea: Nicene Creed
4th Ecumenical Council at Chalcedon: Nicean Constantinople Creed.
I believe in one God, the Father Almighty, Maker of heaven and earth, and of all things visible and invisible.

And in one Lord Jesus Christ, the only-begotten Son of God, begotten of the Father before all worlds; God of God, Light of Light, very God of very God; begotten, not made, being of one substance with the Father, by whom all things were made.

Who, for us men and for our salvation, came down from heaven, and was incarnate by the Holy Spirit of the virgin Mary, and was made man; and was crucified also for us under Pontius Pilate; He suffered and was buried; and the third day He rose again, according to the Scriptures; and ascended into heaven, and sits on the right hand of the Father; and He shall come again, with glory, to judge the quick and the dead; whose kingdom shall have no end.

And I believe in the Holy Ghost, the Lord and Giver of Life; who proceeds from the Father and the Son; who with the Father and the Son together is worshiped and glorified; who spoke by the prophets.

And I believe in one holy catholic and apostolic Church. I acknowledge one baptism for the remission of sins; and I look for the resurrection of the dead, and the life of the world to come. Amen.

NICENE CREED
QUESTIONS?
Essence of God
Can words describe the fragrance of the very breath of spring?
Neltje Blanchan
NAMING THE GOSPELS - MATTHEW
As Jesus was walking along, he saw a man called Matthew sitting at the tax booth; and he said to him, "Follow me." And he got up and followed him.
Matthew 9:9
Songs and poetry are easy to
remember and can be passed on
orally through tradition.

Ex: Psalm 23
Understanding BC/BCE
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