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Mixers/DAW/Signal Flow

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by

Nicole Rogers

on 17 October 2012

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Transcript of Mixers/DAW/Signal Flow

DAW Digital Audio Workstation electronic system designed for recording, editing and playing back digital audio. Integrated DAW consists of a mixing console, control surface, audio converter, and data storage in one device Standalone Devices! Software DAW Works on Personal Computers! Requires:

A Computer

An Audio Interface ( like the MBOX)

The Software Converting Analog to Digital Takes analog voltage changes and converts them to digital numbers called: SAMPLING Sampling A process that converts analog signal to digital information. The value of the signal is measured at certain intervals in time. Each measurement is referred to as a sample. Sample Rate The number of samples taken during one second. Think of each "SAMPLE" as a snapshot Higher Sample Rate = a higher bandwidth Lower Sample Rate=
Lower bandwidth This means:
That the higher the sample rate, the wider the range of frequencies you can record. Quantization Represents AMPLITUDE Translates the voltage levels of the digital signal into BITS (Binary Digits) Bit Depth The Number of BITS recorded for each sample. 16 BIT VS 24 BIT Affects the dynamic range! 16 BIT: CD Quality 24 BIT: DVD/BluRay Quality Quantization Noise
or
"Quantization Error" difference between the actual analog value and quantized digital value Can causes DISTORTION! Aliasing Caused by Frequencies that are double the sample rate.

Example:
Sample Rate = 48kHz, you can't use record noises over 24kHz Luckily, most systems have an

Anti-aliasing filter controlled by a master clock Errors in clock time causes JITTER 1 Bit can have approximately 6 dB of range. Dither Noise added to the recording to smooth out the transitions from one level to another when converting bits. Hard Clipping Distortion from Caused when the quantizing range of the convertor has been ‘used up’ 0 dB FS FS = Full Scale Used in digital level monitoring. Over 0 dB = Hard clipping Signal to Noise Ratio the difference between the input signal and the noise floor of the device (in dB) Nyquist's Law When choosing a sampling rate, you must choose one at least twice the frequency of the highest analog signal.
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