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Leadership Styles

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Ilaria Volpi

on 2 December 2014

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Transcript of Leadership Styles

The person in charge has total authority and control over decision making with little or none input from group members.

The leader's word is "law"
Or "delegative" leadership, it is a type of style in which leaders are hands-off and try to give the least possible guidance to subordinates.
Leadership Styles
Known as participative leadership, it is a type of style in which members of the group take a more active role in the decision making process.
Rarely trust others with decision or important tasks
Works well if the leader is competent and knowledgeable enough to decide about each and everything.
This type of leader may come to force, manipulation, or even threats to accomplish their goals.
Our historical movement toward democracy brings a negative connotation to autocracy, but in some situations is the best type of leadership.
When is it used?

-When control is necessary
-Little margin of error
-Dangerous conditions
-Staff inexperienced or unfamiliar
-Rigid organizations
-Quickly decisions without consulting a large group of people
-When the group is not able to get organized
-Stressful situations
-It allows group members to perform on specific tasks
-Leads to higher productivity
-Better contribution from group members
-Increasing group's morale
-Build strong teams
-Complex problem solving
-Time consuming
-Needs a good communication and collaboration which are not always possible
-Can appear indecisive
When is it used?
-Service Industry
-Creative environment (advertising and design)
Warren Buffett
"One of the richest men in the world"
"We tend to let our many subsidiaries operate on their own, without our supervising and monitoring them to any degree.
Most managers use the independence we grant them magnificently, by maintaining an owner-oriented attitude."
Leaders provide tools and resources needed.
Complete freedom for followers to make decisions.
Group members are expected to solve problems on their own
When is it used?
-Followers are highly skilled, experienced and educated
-They have pride in their work and the ability to do it successfully on their own.
-Each team member is able to identify and implement rapidly appropriate solutions to problems.
-Avoids the costs involved in some meetings
-This autonomy helps group members to feel more satisfied with their work
-Lower productivity
-Lack of control
-The employees may feel insecure because they don't get feedback on their work.
-Lack of group interaction and cohesiveness.
Contingency Theories
Success of the leader = f (many contingencies)
-It could be viewed as bossy, controlling and dictatorial creating a resentment among the group members.
-People in the group may dislike they are unable to contribute ideas.
-Lack of creative solutions to problem.
-It can be very stressful on fellow employees

-Aggressive leadership style
-His strong personality leads him to an autocratic leadership
-He is famous for commanding an extremely tense atmosphere
-No mistakes are tolerated
-He takes all of the final decisions
Chef Gordon Ramsay
Other leadership Styles





Focus on particular variables related to the environment
"No leadership style is best in all situations"
Success depends on different variables:
-Leadership style
-Various aspects of the situation
Fielder Contingency Model
Group performance depends on:
-Leadership style:task or people orientated
-Situational favourableness depending on three factors:
Leader-member relation
Task structure (clear goals and procedures)
Position power
Hersey- Blanchard situational model
"There is no single optimal leadership style, and successful leaders adjust their style based on follower maturity"
This gives rise to four leadership styles:
Delegating style
Supporting style
Coaching style
Directing style
"Trait theory"
Successful leaders have interest, abilities and personality traits different from those of the less effective leader.
It is used to predict leadership effectiveness
Identifies different personality traits and characteristics linked to successful leadership across a variety of situations
Certain traits = certain behaviour
These traits are not the only reason for being a good leader but are seen as preconditions to be a potential successful leader.
The issue of leadership has always been one of a controversy.
Is the most frequently studied topic in the organizational sciences.
There is not a final solution which can be taught in order to be the perfect leader.

Let us start with what leadership is NOT about
Being place higher up in the hierarchy
Titles or grades
Managing, but leading

What is Leadership?
"Is the process of social influence by which one person is able to enlist the aid and support of others in the accomplishment of a common task"
(Martin Chemers)
The four factors of leadership
There is no situational awareness
Attributes of successful leaders perceived as male traits
Subjective judgement
Traits should be measurable
There are group dinamics
"Behavioral Theory"
"A leader is not born, but a leader is made"
Great leader can be taught so
This theory focuses on the study of specific behaviors of a leader.
A leader behavior is the best determinant of his/her leadership success.
There are two main behavioral leadership studies

Ohio State University
They measured different behavioral leadership dimension through a Leaders Behavior Description Questionnaire (LBDQ) conducted to various groups of individuals.
There were two groups of behaviors that were strogly correlated:
-People oriented leaders
-Task oriented leaders
Identified three characteristics of effective leadership:
Two of them were the ones found in the prior mentioned study- task and people orientation
A third variable was found: participation in the processes
University of Michigan
Leadership, task orientation, people orientation and participation can be thaught and learned.
Anyone who adopts the appropriate behavior in the appropriate situation can be a good leader.
Which type of leader would you like to be?
Which leadership style should your boss use?
Do you think a leader is born or made?
A little game













Stogdill, R. M. (1948). Personal factors associated with leadership: A survey of the literature. The Journal of psychology, 25(1), 35-71.

Likert, R. (1979). From production-and employee-centeredness to systems 1-4. Journal of Management, 5(2), 147-156.

Reference for Business: http://www.referenceforbusiness.com/management/Int-Loc/Leadership-Theories-and-Studies.html

Chemers, M. (2014). An integrative theory of leadership. Psychology Press
Thank you!
Andres Sánchez
Camilla Migliora
Mariachiara Fogazzi
Ilaria Volpi
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