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Transcript of Project Management
problem Planning Designing
and maintaining Statement of problem Type of new system New system Using new system Problem with system Change in
purpose Change type
of system Change
system Change use
of system Requirement Prototype
A working model of an information system, built in order to understand the requirements of the system.
- Used when the problem is not easily understandable
- Repetitive process of prototype modification and participants’ feedback until the problem is understood
- Can be the basis for further system development. Choosing the most appropriate solution
From the data gathered in the preliminary investigation you need to make decisions. Start up by creating multiple potential solutions to the problem.
Each potential solution is then expanded on and looked into using the requirement report and the scope of the problem. The scope of the problem is the constraints.
Constraints are problems which affect and limit the information system. Eg. Financial constraints & environment constraints. Feasibility Study
Feasibility studies are extensions of the preliminary investigation. Its a short report which analyses potential solutions and makes a recommendation. This recommendation is based off:
The feasibility study can result in one of three decisions: No change, develop a new system or look for other solutions. This result is decided by the management. Project Management Requirements Reports
The requirements report is a statement about the need for a new system.
- Outlines the aims and objectives of the new system and how it will help the organization.
- Based on data collected from the participants
- It must match the goals of the organization to ensure that management is satisfied with the solution. Identify problems
- Interviewing/surveying users of the information system
- Interviewing/surveying participants.
- Analysing the existing system by determining:
o How it works
o What it does
o Who uses it Implementing Maintenance:
Modifications to the system to make minor improvements.
During the operation, participants may uncover system
deficiencies and suggest improvements. Doing this may
require new hardware and/or upgrading software packages.
These are ongoing until another system is developed or the
system is terminated. Acquiring Information Technology Operation Manual:
Details the procedures to be followed by participants
in the operation of the program. It is usually presented
in a hard copy and must be simple and easy to use and understand. It must be:
- User friendly in format and structure
- Clear and concise
- Steps listed in point form
- Tasks completed in the simplest way possible
- Appropriate instructions for file management and security
- Screen dumps where possible/necessary Implementing Plan
- Traditional group training sessions- The trainer can be a member of the
system development team or an outsourced specialist trainer.
- Online Training- Outline tutorials and help systems allow users to learn new skills at their own pace and as they are needed.
- Operation Manuals- Printed operation manuals contain procedural information similar to many online tutorials and help systems.
- Peer Training- (Train the trainer) One or more users undergo intensive training in regard to the operation and skills needed by the new system and then train peers. Development Approaches: TOPCAP Traditional: Formal step by step stages UPDIT
Outsourcing: Using another company to develop or even complete system
Prototyping: A prototype is a working model of an information system
Customization: Existing system is customized to suit specific needs and requirements of a new system Agile Methods: Team developing systems rather than following predefined structured development processes
Participant Development: Same people who use the system and develop the system Requirements Report (TOOP)
Parrallel- Involves the old and new systems both working together at the same time until the new system has proved itself satisfactory. It is the safest yet more costly way. Details the frame
Details the subprojects and the time frame for them
Identifies the needs of the users Feasibility Study: TOES TECHNICAL: is the hardware and software available OPERATING: measure of how well a proposed system solves the problems
ECONOMIC: determine the benefits and savings that are expected from a system and compare them with costs
SCHEDULING: is there enough time available Testing and Evaluating:
Performance of a system is tested. Testing makes sure that the system
actually works. Evaluation ensures the system is doing what it was
designed to do and whether any changes are needed. Druing evaluation,
the results of the new system are compared with the original aims and
objectives outlined in the requirement report. Evaluation is ongoing. During the Implementing stage the hardware and software are
-tested Direct- Involved immediate change to the new system on a chosen date. This method is used when the system is fairly standard, time is minimal or systems are unable to run at the same time. Pilot- Involves trailing the new system in a small portion of the organization. The users of this small portion are able to evaluate the new system. If the system fails, only a small part will be effected. Phased- Involves the gradual implementation of the new system. Each module is tested separately and allows users to gain confidence with each section of the new system. Conversion Methods Information Processes: Processing- manipulation of the data and information. Occurs when the data/ information is modified and updated. Carried out by the central processing unit (CPU), which accepts data from an input device, modifies it and passes it into the output device.
Organising- formatting data for the next process e.g. putting it into a spreadsheet for a graph.
Displaying- presentation of data
collecting- gathering the data
Analysing- interpreting the data, transforming it into information e.g. creating charts and graphs.
Storing and retieving- saving data for later use, and obtaining the data that has been previously saved.
transmitting and receiving- Transfer of data within and between information systems. Data flow diagrams
The data flow diagram (DFD) is a graphical method of representing a system that uses a number of processes in a system. it shows here data is collected, organized, analysed, stored, processed, transmitted and displayed. Process circles used to represent processes. Processes are actions taking place to transform input to outputs. lines represent data flows between proccesses, data stores and external entities. Data flows should be named to identify the piece of data. External
entity Boxes used to represent external entities. These are any item, person or organised sitting outside the systems that provides data to the system or receives data from the system. Data store An open- ended rectangle is used to represent a data store. Data stores include electronic or non computer-based stores of data. They should be named with a logical name. Context diagram Context diagrams represent the entire system as a single process. They do not attempt to describe the information processes within the system; rather they identify the data entering and the information leaving the systems together with its source and destination. symbol Library Name Process Description Circles are used to represent processes. Processes are actions taking place to transform inputs to outputs. in a context diagram, a system is represented by a single, labelled circle. In a data flow diagram, multiple circles represent multiple processes within the system. Payment Data Flow Curved represent data flows between processes, data stores and external entities. Data flows should be named to identify the piece of data. Student External Entity Boxes are used to represent external entities. These are any item, person or organisation sitting outside the systems that provides data to the system or receives data from the system.