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Methodology - Recap Questions 1
Transcript of Methodology - Recap Questions 1
Understanding the Grammar-Translation Method.
1.It has been said that the Grammar-Translation Method teaches students about the target language, but not how to use it. Explain the difference in your own words.
2.What are the clues that this method had its origin in the teaching of the classical languages, Latin and Greek?
Applying what you have understood about the Grammar-Translation Method.
1.Think of a particular group of students you have recently taught or are currently teaching. Choose a reading passage from a literary work or a textbook or write one yourself. Make sure it is at a level your students can understand, yet not at a level that would be too simple for them. Try translating it yourself as a test of its difficulty. Identify the vocabulary you would choose to work on. Plan vocabulary exercises you would use to help your students associate the new words with their native language equivalents.
2.Pick a grammatical point or two contained in the same passage. Provide the explicit grammar rule that relates to each one and give some examples. Design exercises that require your students to apply the rule to some different examples
Understanding the Direct Method
1.Explain the difference between deductive and inductive treatments of grammar.
2.What are some of the characteristics of the Direct Method that make it so distinctive from the Grammar-Translation Method?
3.It has been said that it may be advantageous to a teacher using the Direct Method not to know his students' native language. Do you agree? Why?
Applying what you have understood about the Direct Method
1.Choose a particular situation (such as at the bank, at the railroad station, or at the doctor's office) or a particular topic (such as articles of clothing, holidays, or the weather) and write a short passage or a dialogue on the theme you have chosen. Now think about how you will con¬vey its meaning to students without using their native language.
2.Select a grammar point from the passage. Plan how you will get students to practice the grammar point. What examples can you provide them with so that they can induce the rule themselves?
3.Practice writing and giving a dictation.
Understanding the Communicative Language Teaching
1.Explain in your own words Morrow's three features of communication: information gap, choice, and feedback.
2.Why do we say that communication is a process? What does it mean to negotiate meaning?
3.What does it mean to say that the linguistic forms a speaker uses should be appropriate to the social context?
Applying what you have understood about the Communicative Language Teaching
1.If you wanted to introduce your friend Paula to Roger, you might say:
Roger, this is (my friend) Paula.
I would like you to meet Paula.
Let me present Paula to you.
Roger, meet Paula.
Allow me to introduce Paula.
In other words, there are a variety of forms for this one function. Which would you teach to a beginning class, an intermediate class, an advanced class? Why?
List linguistic forms you can use for the function of inviting. Which would you teach to beginners? To intermediates? To an advanced class?
2.Imagine that you are working with your students on the function of requesting information. The authentic material you have selected is a railroad timetable. Design a communicative game or problem-solving task in which the timetable is used to give your students practice in requesting information.
Understanding the Community Language Learning
1.What are six elements of non-defensive learning? Explain them.
2.Curran claims learners pass through five stages of learning as they go from being a beginning language learner to an advanced language
learner. As they experience these stages, they change from being dependent on the teacher to being mutually interdependent with the teacher. Can you see how these students are dependent on the teacher now? Can you find anything in the class that encourages learner independence?
Applying what you have understood about the Community Language Learning
1.Think of five different activities to help students process and review the target language conversation they create while being consistent with the principles of the Com¬munity Language Learning Method.
2.Try teaching a lesson as you normally do, but think of your students in a whole-person way, if this is a new idea to you. Does this change the way you work? If so, then how?
Understanding the Content-based, Task-based and Participatory Approaches
1.In your own words describe the difference between the approach to teaching communication taken in the Communicative Language Teaching and this one.
2.Why do you think that content-based instruction has been called 'a method with many faces'? (Snow 1991).
3.Willis (1996) proposes the following sequence for task-based activities: Pre-task, Task, and Language Focus. Skehan (1998) comments that this sequence is the reverse of the sequence found in more traditional instruction. Discuss.
4.It might be said that the participatory approach has a political philosophy as well as an educational one. What do you understand this statement to mean?
Applying what you have understood about the Content-based, Task-based and Participatory Approaches
1.How are process writing and journal-keeping consistent with whole language principles? Can you think of any other writing techniques that follow from the principles?
2.Draw up a list of projects that might be undertaken by your students. Remember that the project is not designed to suit particular linguistic points. Also remember the fact that students want to be involved is crucial. On your list could be something like publishing a school newspaper or e-projects. Other ideas might be planning a field trip, conducting a survey, or researching a topic such as an environmental concern.
3.Think of one example to fit each of Prabhu's three types of task: infor¬mation-gap, opinion-gap, and reasoning-gap.
Understanding the Total Physical Response
1.Asher believes that foreign language instruction can and should be modeled on native language acquisition. What are some characteris-tics of his method that are similar to the way children acquire their native language?
2.One of the principles of TPR is that when student anxiety is low, lan-guage learning is enhanced. How does this method lower student anx¬iety?
Applying what you have understood about the Total Physical Response
1.Although the teacher uses imperatives, she does so in a gentle, pleasant way, the way a parent would (usually) do with a child. Her voice, facial expression, and manner are kind. Prepare a set of instructions you might use in a classroom.
2.A lot of target language structures and vocabulary can be taught through the imperative. Plan part of a TPR lesson in which the present continu¬ous tense, or another structure in the target language, is introduced.
3.In the action sequence (operation) that we looked at, the teacher had the students pretend to write and mail a letter. Think of three other common activities which could be used as action sequences in the classroom. Make a list of commands for each one.
Understanding the Learning Strategy Training, Cooperative Learning, and Multiple Intelligences
1.State in your own words the difference between language training and learner training.
2.It has been said about cooperative learning that it attempts to teach students to 'think us, not me.' What do you think that this means?
3.Categorize each of the following seven activity types into the type of intelligence it likely taps. There is one intelligence for each:
Listening to lectures, tapping out the stress patterns of sentences, cooperative tasks, goal setting, map reading, Total Physical Response, surveying students' likes and dislikes, and graphing the results.
Applying what you have understood about the Learning Strategy Training, Cooperative Learning, and Multiple Intelligences
1.Interview your classmates about the learning strategies they use to facilitate their language acquisition. Are there any patterns? Are there strategies that might help the students you teach.
2.Goodman (1998) has written that 'one essential tenet of cooperative learning is the notion that any exercise, course material, or objective ... may be reformulated into a cooperative experience' (p. 6). With this in mind, think back to a recent exercise you asked your language students to do. How could you have reformulated it in such a way as to be con¬sistent with cooperative learning principles?
3.Make a list of your most commonly used language teaching activities. Try to determine which intelligences they work on. If there are intelligences that are not included in your list.
Understanding the Audio-Lingual Method
1.Which of the following techniques follows from the principles of the Audio-Lingual Method, and which ones don't? Explain the reasons for your answer.
a.The teacher asks beginning-level students to write a composition about the system of transportation in their home countries. If they need a vocabulary word that they don't know, they are told to look in a bilingual dictionary for a translation.
b.Toward the end of the third week of the course, the teacher gives stu¬dents a reading passage. The teacher asks the students to read the passage and to answer certain questions based upon it. The passage contains words and structures introduced during the first three weeks of the course.
c.The teacher tells the students that they must add an V to third per¬son singular verbs in the present tense in English. She then gives the students a list of verbs and asks them to change the verbs into the third person singular present tense form.
2.Some people believe that knowledge of a first and second language can be helpful to learners who are trying to learn a third language. What would an Audio-Lingual teacher say about this? Why?
Understanding the Silent Way
1.There are many reasons for the teacher's silence in the Silent Way. Some of these have been stated explicitly in this chapter; others have been implied. Can you state the reasons?
2.What does the phrase, 'Teaching is subordinated to learning,' mean?
3.One of the mottos of the Silent Way is 'The teacher works with the students; the students work on the language.' What do you think this means?
Applying what you have understood about the Silent Way
1.Teach some students a short target language verse which contains some unfamiliar sounds. What nonverbal gestures or cues can you develop to guide your students to produce the correct sounds, intonation, and rhythm as they learn the verse?
2.Choose a grammar structure. It is probably better at first to choose something elementary like the demonstrative adjectives ('this,' 'that,' 'these,' 'those' in English) or the possessive adjectives ('my,' 'your,' 'his,' 'her,' 'its,' 'our,' 'their' in English).
Plan a lesson to teach the structures where:
a.You will remain as silent and interfere as little as possible.
b.The meaning will be clear to the students.
c.They will receive a good deal of practice without repetition.
3.Think of students with a particular native language background. How will you sequence the sounds of the target language in order to teach them to these students, building on what they already know?
Understanding the Suggestiopedia
1.What are some of the ways that direct positive suggestions are pres¬ent in the lesson? Indirect positive suggestions?
2.How are the arts integrated into the lesson
Applying what you have understood about the Suggestiopedia
3.Most teachers do not have control of the classrooms in which they teach. This does not mean that they cannot provide an environment designed to reduce the barriers their students bring with them, how¬ever. Can you think of ways that you might do this?
4.Make a list of ten grammatical points about the target language that you would want to display on posters to encourage beginning stu-dents' peripheral learning.
Applying what you have understood about the Audio-Lingual Method
1.Read the following dialog. What subsentence pattern is it trying to teach?
SAM Lou's going to go to college next fall.
BETTY Where is he going?
SAM He's going to Stanford.
BETTY What is he going to study ?
SAM Biology. He's going to be a doctor.
Prepare a series of drills (backward build-up, repetition, chain, single-slot substitution, multiple-slot substitution, transformation, and ques-tion-and-answer) designed to give beginning level EFL students some practice with this structure. If the target language that you teach is not English, you may wish to write your own dialog first. It is not easy to prepare drills, so to check yours, you might want to try giving them to some other teachers.
2.Prepare your own dialog to introduce your students to a sentence or subsentence pattern in the target language you teach.