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US Black History
Transcript of US Black History
Civil Rights Movement
Jim Crow Laws =
Black people had the vote, but they faced widespread intimidation, police attacks, discrimination and poor facilities
It was clear many whites would fight the black rights movement every step of the way.
Why do you think this was the case?
The US Constitution was suppossed to guarantee equal rights!
X believed that black people should be self-sufficient, militant and more aggressive in their struggle
X was shot dead in 1965
Linda Brown, a seven year old girl, has to walk 20 blocks to school.
With the help of the NAACP, her father takes the board of education to
court. Chief Justice Warren declare segregation illegal, and orders all
authorities to end segregation.
Little Rock - Arkansas 1957
Nine black students try to enter school
to take their places. The GOVERNOR of Arkansas, surrounds the school with National Guardsmen to prevent them from taking their places. The black community take the issue to court and the soldiers are withdrawn. Eisenhower sends 1000 paratroopers in to protect the students.
Rosa Parkes and the Montgomery bus boycott - 1955
On Dec 1st Alabama, a 42 year old woman,
Rosa Parkes defies on the law that black people
have to give up their seats on buses for white
people. She was arrested and jailed. The NAACP
(which she was a secretary for) call a bus boycott. Rev Dr Martin Luther King, a young Baptist minister, leads
the campaign. In Nov '56 the Supreme Court rules that segregation is illegal and in Dec. the bus firm gives in
Atlantan Baptist Minister who fought
for black civil rights. He believed in
non-violent disobedience (like Ghandi).
He believed that violence was morally wrong and non-violent methods would achieve their aims.
Martin Luther King
Freedom Rides - 1961
Segregation STILL existed on interstate transport in the south. In 1961 the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) organised freedom rides to test the new policy. There were many ugly clashes and Attorney General Robert Kennedy (yes that one) sent in 500 marshals to protect the riders. In the end the Interstate Commerce Commission ended segregation in all bus stations, airports and railway stations. By 1963 this had spread to all public facilities
The council close all public facilities to black people. MLK leads a freedom march, 30,000 blacks take part in sit-ins. 500 are arrested every day. Police Commissioner Eugene Connor uses water cannons, dogs and baton charges on peaceful protestors. These evets are televised and public horror follows. President Kennedy sends in troops to demand that Birmingham council end segregation, which it did.
Birmingham Alabama - 1962
MLK Speech - August 1963
250,000 people hear MLK make one of the most famous speeches of all time at the Lincoln Memorial. He demands civil rights and in Dec '64 he is awarded the Nobel Peace Prize
Five days later, in Alabama, MLK is imprisoned for campaigning for changes to voter registration
In the end, a new Voting Rights Act is passed and a further 1 million black people are registered to vote
VOTING RIGHTS ACT - 1965 (SUCCESS!)
is this going to end discrimination and persecution?