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postcolonial approach of pakistan,

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sadaf ihsan

on 7 May 2014

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Transcript of postcolonial approach of pakistan,

postcolonial approach of pakistan

pakistan as a post-colonial state

Muneeza Shamsie
the famous literary journalist,compiler, critic and editor
Her most acclaimed works are her compilation of the works of Pakistani writers who are writing in English.

Post colonial criticism
Kamila Naheed Shamsie
British -Pakistani novelist

Taufeeq Rafat
its themes and its postcolonial perspective
works,themes and its postcolonial perspective,
. Post-colonial literature addresses the problems and consequences of the de-colonization of a country and of a nation, especially the political and cultural independence of formerly subjugated colonial peoples


asserting self-identity
its rich cultural background
writing back to the centre
"What did we lose, what was lost in us?To whom do these distances belong that separated uS and that now bind us
rafat's post colonial approach
In his post-colonial poetry, the human past remains immutably immanent in the present. In unsealing it, Rafat transcends the local to tap into the common historyof humanity and derives a universal commonality that erases the distinction
between the Self and the “Other”
Pakistani idiom reflecting PAKISTANINESS
Pakistani literature in English claims to have its own idiom reflecting Pakistani culture, society and mannerisms. It also has its own system of symbols, reflecting its "Pakistaniness“. a system, in terms of a local idiom, imagery and symbolism, has emerged more visibly in Pakistani poetry than in fiction, and no other Pakistani poet has contributed more, in shaping a distinct Pakistani idiom, than
Taufiq Rafat
The Arrival of the Monsoon: The collected poems
Eastern Symbolism and the Recovery of Selfhood 
Use of pakistani idiom
a subjective nostalgia for the rich cultural past

Chairs are insular;
they do not encourage
intimacy like slats...
We would not dream
of coming to this place
to savour our triumphs,
or unburden our griefs

in ‘Kitchens’ with a subjective nostalgia for a childhoodspent in a rural kitchen that is “high-roofed” (Rafat 44) and “spacious” (Rafat 44), permeated with “the pungency/ of smoke and spices” (Rafat 44) , he escorts thereaders to a contemporary and sterilized kitchen that is both sterile and unreal, justlike modern existence
One of the primary concerns of writers in postcolonial societies has been to effect a "recovery" of national, or cultural selfhood through highlighting various distinct aspects of their native identification e.g. via speech tonalities and idiom, images of their terrain, geographical features, presentation of festivities, rites and rituals and so on
The American edition of her third anthology And The World Changed: Contemporary Stories by Pakistani Women won the 2009 IPPY (Independent Publisher of the Year) Gold Award &the 2008 Foreword Magazine Book of The Year Bronze Award - both for the best anthology by an independent publisher
Major works
Her first anthology,
Dragonfly in the Sun,
which took its name from a Ghose poem, was a retrospective of fiction, poetry and drama, which followed the development of Pakistani English writing. 
Her second anthology
Leaving Home :Towards A New Millennium (2001)
explored the Pakistani experience of migration in its widest perspective, through fiction and essays.
And The World Changed
: Contemporary Stories by Pakistani Women traces the development of English language writing by Pakistani women and inks it to the acquisition of English by Indian Muslim in pre-Partition times.
Sunlight and Salt: The Literary Landscapes of a Divided Family
(The Journal of Commonwealth Literature) compare the treatment of Partition, class, colonialism, history and gender in two Partition novels from the same family: Sunlight on a Broken Column by the Indian writer Attia Hosain (1963) and Salt and Saffron(2000) by the Pakistani writer, Kamila Shamsi

Muneeza shamsies works as a critic is a representation of the traumatic colonialism and partition, Indo-Pakistan relations, gender conflict and cultural clash ,while supplying benchmarks regarding the evolution of women experience and writings during the pre and post partition period.


"And the World Changed'
 "it is a path breaking anthology, a feast of women's writing which challenges stereotypes of Pakistani women since Partition. It is essential reading for anyone interested in this emerging literature."—Janet Wilson, Professor of English and Postcolonial Studies, The University of Northampton; editor, Journal of Postcolonial Writing
her first novel,
In The City by the Sea
(1998) & her third novel
was shortlisted for the John Llewellyn Rhys Prize in the UK
she was selected as one of Orange's 21 Writers of the 21st century after her second novel, Salt and Saffron(2000)
Both Kartography and her next novel, Broken Verses, have won the Patras Bokhari Award from the Academy of Letters in Pakistan
Her fifth novel Burnt Shadows was shortlisted for the Orange Prize for Fiction
Shamsie received the Prime Minister's Award for Literature in Pakistan in 1999

Post colonial approach
Five novels written by kamila shamsie
All of them deals with the history and culture of subcontinent and Pakistan in particular.
Interaction between people of different cultures is a recurring theme in her work
Emotional discomfort, love, loss of family ,war ,how history affects several generations of family ,politics of social hierarchies such as class, culture,origin are the dominant post colonial themes in her works.

Famous novels & their themes
In the City by the Sea
Individuals love for his family & the role of imagination in the mind of a child
Salt and Saffron (
exploration of the search for a balance between individual identity and ancestral and cultural heritage.Partition, love, family.
Kartography (
Friendship, war, migration, love, family,issues of a country
)Broken Verses
explores idealist fundamentalism, and the conflict between personal life and political activity. Disillusionment of Pakistani elite, religion & politics
Burnt Shadows
Humanity and individual finding a way to bring satisfaction to their individuality

Burnt Shadows
Writes back to the centre
Deliberate and self conscious reply to colonial text A
by E.M Forster.
Novel comprises four sections
Forster,s novel presented a wrong picture of indians and india to the readers but Shamsie follows same plot but from colonized perspective
Burnt Shadows follows the life of Nagasaki survivor Hiroko Tanaka, from Japan, to India, then to Pakistan and, eventually, to America.
writing in a post “9/11”world which is currently gripped by the notion of America’s “war against terror,” Shamsie has explored the notions of terrorism and nationalism from a postcolonial angle.

Based on Jim Harvey's speech structures

Taufiq Rafat (1927-1998) was a famous Pakistani poet and writer and pioneer of English language poetry/writing in Pakistan.

His work was included in several early anthologies. His own best known collection of poems was Arrival of the Monsoon (1984). He also translated several works of various Punjabi writers into English
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