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Football sites of memory in Eastern Bloc 1945-1991

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Seweryn Dmowski

on 26 January 2017

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Transcript of Football sites of memory in Eastern Bloc 1945-1991

Football sites of memory
in Eastern Bloc 1945-1991

Dr Seweryn Dmowski (University of Warsaw)
Stuttgart, February 22-23, 2013

Lieu de memoire / Site of memory
"...any significant entity, whether material or non-material in nature, which by dint of human will or the work of time has become a symbolic element of the memorial heritage of any community."
Pierre Nora, "From lieux de mémoire to realms of memory"
"...where [cultural] memory crystallizes and secretes itself."
Pierre Nora, "Between Memory and History: Les Lieux de Mémoire"
places
concepts
objects
symbols
Two levels of analysis
integration
decomposition
adaptation
resistance
acceptance of non-democratic regime
and subordination
opposition against
communist regime
internal strenghtening
of the community
community breakdown
"Opposition"
Poland vs USSR matches
1957
Poland-USSR 2:1
1972
Poland-USSR 2:1
1982
Poland-USSR 0:0
Symbol:
Context:
Victory after Gerard Cieślik's 2 goals against Lev Yashin.
"Polish October 1956" and heritage
of stalinism.
Symbol:
Context:
Victory after Kazimierz Deyna's 2 goals in Olympic Games semi-final.
"Polish December 1970" and a massacre
in Gdańsk and Gdynia.
Symbol:
Context:
"Victorious draw" in World Cup 1982 second round and Zbigniew Boniek's trophy.
Introduction of martial law (1981)
in Poland
"Integration"
West Germany winning World Cup 1990
Context:
Symbol:
Celebration in Berlin in 1990.
Re-unification of Germany.
"Adaptation"
Euro 1976 victory
Context:
Symbol:
Panenka's winning penalty.
National pride and German resentiment.
"Adaptation"
Hungary beats England 6:3 at Wembley 1953
Context:
Symbol:
End of British domination in international football.
Propagandist usage of vitory.
Context:
Symbol:
Romania win over Denmark 3:1 in World Cup Qualification
Anti-Ceausescu riots in Bucharest
and Timisoara.
"Resistance"
Romania-Denmark match in 1989
Context:
Symbol:
Croatian player Zvonimir Boban kicks Yugoslav policeman.
Decay of Yugoslavia.
"Decomposition"
Riots at Maksimir stadium 1991
Context:
Symbol:
Levski Sofia from 3:0 to 3:4 against Royal Antwerp in UEFA Cup
Internal situation in Bulgaria.
"Resistance"
"Euroidiots" 1989
Context:
Symbol:
Sensational draw 0:0 against West Germany in Euro 1968 qualification.
Propagandist usage of the victory, rising ethnic and political tensions in Albania.
"Football identity"
Benedict Anderson's "imagined communities"
Identity of a football fans grouped around the particular team
Important role of collective memory
What is common for the whole
Eastern Bloc?
"Adaptation" / "Integration"
Albania - West Germany 0:0 in 1967
"Patronaged" clubs
Characteristic for the Eastern Bloc
Legacy of the Cold War and communist rule
Patronage provided by branches/departments of communist authorities
Creating new clubs and taking over existing ones
"Victimized" clubs
People's Republic of Poland
German Democratic Republic
Czechoslovak Socialist Republic
People's Republic of Hungary
Socialist Republic of Romania
People's Republic of Bulgaria
Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
People's Republic of Albania
Army
Internal
Security
Railroad
Transport
"Victimized"
Thank you!
seweryn.dmowski@uw.edu.pl

www.seweryndmowski.pl
www.twitter.com/seweryndmowski
uw.academia.edu/seweryndmowski
Conclusions
"Rivalries in European Football"
International Research Project
www.ref-project.eu
www.facebook.com/ref.project
53 researchers

Political, social and cultural backgrounds of club football rivalries.
The phenomenon of "football sites of memory" exists and needs further research.
Collective memory is a key to understand "football identities" across Europe.
More case studies from both Western and Eastern Europe needed.
Full transcript