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Football sites of memory in Eastern Bloc 1945-1991
Transcript of Football sites of memory in Eastern Bloc 1945-1991
in Eastern Bloc 1945-1991
Dr Seweryn Dmowski (University of Warsaw)
Stuttgart, February 22-23, 2013
Lieu de memoire / Site of memory
"...any significant entity, whether material or non-material in nature, which by dint of human will or the work of time has become a symbolic element of the memorial heritage of any community."
Pierre Nora, "From lieux de mémoire to realms of memory"
"...where [cultural] memory crystallizes and secretes itself."
Pierre Nora, "Between Memory and History: Les Lieux de Mémoire"
Two levels of analysis
acceptance of non-democratic regime
of the community
Poland vs USSR matches
Victory after Gerard Cieślik's 2 goals against Lev Yashin.
"Polish October 1956" and heritage
Victory after Kazimierz Deyna's 2 goals in Olympic Games semi-final.
"Polish December 1970" and a massacre
in Gdańsk and Gdynia.
"Victorious draw" in World Cup 1982 second round and Zbigniew Boniek's trophy.
Introduction of martial law (1981)
West Germany winning World Cup 1990
Celebration in Berlin in 1990.
Re-unification of Germany.
Euro 1976 victory
Panenka's winning penalty.
National pride and German resentiment.
Hungary beats England 6:3 at Wembley 1953
End of British domination in international football.
Propagandist usage of vitory.
Romania win over Denmark 3:1 in World Cup Qualification
Anti-Ceausescu riots in Bucharest
Romania-Denmark match in 1989
Croatian player Zvonimir Boban kicks Yugoslav policeman.
Decay of Yugoslavia.
Riots at Maksimir stadium 1991
Levski Sofia from 3:0 to 3:4 against Royal Antwerp in UEFA Cup
Internal situation in Bulgaria.
Sensational draw 0:0 against West Germany in Euro 1968 qualification.
Propagandist usage of the victory, rising ethnic and political tensions in Albania.
Benedict Anderson's "imagined communities"
Identity of a football fans grouped around the particular team
Important role of collective memory
What is common for the whole
"Adaptation" / "Integration"
Albania - West Germany 0:0 in 1967
Characteristic for the Eastern Bloc
Legacy of the Cold War and communist rule
Patronage provided by branches/departments of communist authorities
Creating new clubs and taking over existing ones
People's Republic of Poland
German Democratic Republic
Czechoslovak Socialist Republic
People's Republic of Hungary
Socialist Republic of Romania
People's Republic of Bulgaria
Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
People's Republic of Albania
"Rivalries in European Football"
International Research Project
Political, social and cultural backgrounds of club football rivalries.
The phenomenon of "football sites of memory" exists and needs further research.
Collective memory is a key to understand "football identities" across Europe.
More case studies from both Western and Eastern Europe needed.