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L1 & L2 Cross-linguistic interaction

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Laura Castiblanco

on 12 April 2013

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Transcript of L1 & L2 Cross-linguistic interaction

A descriptive study of language transference and procedures in writing. By: Laura Estefany Castiblanco Rojas &
Jeisson Freddy Martinez Cristancho Introduction Stickers Scraps Other Materials pssstt...
you can crop these! Or you can insert your own objects! (right click on any object to "Add My Collection," for use in other prezis.) L1 and L2 cross-linguistic interaction Literature review Research Design Instructional Design Conclusions and pedagogical implications Limitations and further Research References Student as Teacher: Hi children, today vamos a ver las vocals
Student: hello teacher, thank you
Student as teacher: please sientense y saquen el notebook, vamos a hacer quiz
Student: no teacher, a mi no me like los quizes.
General objective

• To identify and analyze the most common interlanguage and language transference concepts such as language transfer, overgeneralization and simplification by omission presented on students’ L2 written compositions.



Specific objectives

• To recognize the steps and procedures that students use when creating written compositions.

• To understand how students combine their L1 and L2 knowledge to complete written tasks. "His father is Alfonso, 65 years old, is thin, tall, ugly, is sad, clear, strong, is old" "my mother is eyes brown, is beutifull, 45 years old, her name is Kelly" Sub-questions Tudor (2001) Tudor (2001) Henderson & Hawthorne (1995) Tudor (2001) Tudor (2001) Task-Based Willis (1996) Learning Our Data was found in... Students' Artifacts Transcriptions of TAP Students Note
Taking Student A:
Laura: Listo, me regalas tu nombre por fa.
M: eh, mi nombre es Maite Valentina Gómez.
L: bueno Maite, quiero saber ¿cómo te sentiste escribiendo ésta carta?
M: pues, un poquito nerviosa, pues por las palabras, pues porque hubieron muchas palabras pues que me confundí, pero me sentí bien.
L: ¿sí? ¿Cuáles fueron las palabras que más se te dificultaron?
M: emm… se me dificultó, “Tu eres” emm “todo” y ya.
L: bueno léenos la primera frasecita que tienes ahí.
M: you are beautiful, comprensive, pretty and happy. I love you because you are my best friends. Student B :
Laura: Me regalas tu nombre por favor
Andrea: Andrea
L: Bueno Andrea quisiera saber ¿qué elementos utilizaste para escribir esta carta en inglés?
A: Pues ehh aparte de estudiar aquí con la profesora de inglés, estoy en un curso de inglés que también ayuda al colegio, entonces pues trato de recordar lo mas que pueda en los dos lugares, las palabras y todo eso que me han enseñado, y ya pues es lo que yo uso, y pues relacionar palabras.
L: ok, tú dices relacionar palabras, ¿qué quieres decir con eso?
A: osea por ejemplo algunas palabras que se parezcan en la terminación o a veces en escribirlas en español y que se dan casi lo mismo en inglés.
L: bueno, Léenos la primera parte que escribiste
A: ¿lo primero que escribí? Ehh bueno, Mom thanks for all, for help my with homeworks for you love and, por ser de best mom (laugh) I love you.
L: ¿por qué pusiste eso en español?
A: pues… porque son palabras que no se, que no me acuerdo y pues no tengo diccionario y para completar la puse en español (risas) Data Management Data Analysis Five students of Secondary school selected from 7th grade - Public state school Written and oral workshops were applied during the English lessons Selection
method theoretical non-random with intentional sampling McMillan&Schumacher, 2005: 466 Patton 1990: 169 "the selection of cases with prolific data for detailed studies" Type of Study This research spouses case study as an intensive, holistic description and analysis of a “single unit” or “bounded system” that seeks to understand processes instead of outcomes where the phenomenon or individuals being studied provide the analytical framework upon which analysis will take place (Merriam, 1998:14). Ours is corroborated through the description of written activities with intended goals during EFL lessons, avoiding biased writing from the participants and permitting spaces for natural writing One of the approach used to get our categories was the grounded approach (Freeman, 1998:102) which follows the next path: Content analysis Colour coding Data management process Research Question
• How do seventh graders use L1 and L2 to cope with writing tasks?





• What are the procedures that students use when attempting to write short texts in the target language?

• How do interlanguage and language transference are revealed on L2 seventh students’ writings? Objectives One of the problems that we faced when we started our teaching practicum was that students’ written English compositions had an influence of their native language (L1) during their English (L2) lessons while speaking, writing and creating in the new language for them. Setting and
participants This research was conducted in A branch of “Institucion Educativa Distrital República de Colombia”. Setting Participants "the intellectual development and the growth in values, while fostering wisdom, productivity and living independently" Our constructs! P.E.I
we as authors, consider these phenomena as a construction of learning experiences that learners build upon different scenarios and also, implementing a variety of formulas to adapt their L1 into L2 production, not only as an unwitting stage of learning, but as a strategy to overcome certain objectives in their EFL process; this means, intentionally Cross- linguistic interactions Overgeneralizations Learners construction of meaning mediated by their proficiency in vocabulary and lexicon Transferences Learners direct and intentional use of Spanish to convey meaning through the use of Spanish words Omissions Learners constructions of sentences taking into account their L1 typical collocations and also, their understanding of simple English sentence constructions Students procedures while writing are mediated by... Manning and Cullum-Swam; 1994 cited by Merriam (1998) Vision of learning Vision of curriculum Vision of classroom Data Analysis and findings Qualitative Descriptive Case Study Instruments Students' Artifacts Think-Aluod Protocol Students Note
Taking Student A:
Laura: Listo, me regalas tu nombre por fa.
M: eh, mi nombre es Maite Valentina Gómez.
L: bueno Maite, quiero saber ¿cómo te sentiste escribiendo ésta carta?
M: pues, un poquito nerviosa, pues por las palabras, pues porque hubieron muchas palabras pues que me confundí, pero me sentí bien.
L: ¿sí? ¿Cuáles fueron las palabras que más se te dificultaron?
M: emm… se me dificultó, “Tu eres” emm “todo” y ya.
L: bueno léenos la primera frasecita que tienes ahí.
M: you are beautiful, comprensive, pretty and happy. I love you because you are my best friends. Nolan & Hoover (2008:38) describe artifacts as a varied and extended source of data that augments the data actually captured by the supervisor (teacher) in terms of authenticity and spontaneity and with a frequency of collection that is to be determined by the researcher. Notes can be defined as short condensations of a source material that are generated by writing them down while simultaneously listening, studying, or observing […] their function is to gather information (Olive, et al, 2005). The think-aloud method consists of asking people to think aloud while solving a problem and analyzing the resulting verbal protocols (Someren et al. 1994) Techniques Document Content Analysis Document Collection Video Recording Transcriptions For student’s artifacts, the implemented technique was document content analysis, documented by authors such as Morgan&Harmon (2001: 3) and Leedy (1985:46) as an archival measurement for data extraction or mining. Document collection is defined by Freman (1998:94) as the collection of set of documents relevant on the research context; he mentioned students’ writings as one of the important or relevant documents that can be used to obtain information. Video recording was implemented as a data collection technique for Think-Aloud protocol. One by one, students were recorded while explaining the processes which were made when writing. As complementary technique we used transcriptions of the video recordings, which is defined by Freman (1998:94) as the written representation of verbal recording using convention for identifying speakers an indicating pauses, hesitation, overlaps or any necessary non- verbal information Role of the
researcher The researcher is who gathers the information, who interacts and intervenes the setting as teacher, and the most important, who collects the data and interprets it. The veracy of results and findings from a study and how data is actually connected with the initial purpose of the study in terms of accuracy, credibility, conformability and so forth
(Merriam, 1998:207, Angen, 2000:379, Gay, Mills,&Airasian; 2009:375,). Validity & Reliability Validity Triangulation Reliability It is the comparison and analysis of data from different sources, methods, data and observations to confirm how the emerging findings actually fit into the data collected (Carpenter&Suto, 2008:152, Gay, Mills&Airasian; 2009:377, Merriam, 1998:204). The instruments, data collection and simultaneous review of the emerging themes were compared by the five participants, confirming emerging assumptions about the use of L1 and L2 from these participants. Reliability has been commented by Merriam (1998:205) as the possibility for research findings to be replicated or implemented in another type of setting and obtain a similar result, in other words, how generalizable is the study (See also Gay, Mills&Airasian; 2009: 373). The fidelity in explanation of the instruments, techniques and procedures implemented during this study give account of reliable research processes. Ethics The use of informed consent to the school academic director in order to request for permission and approval for the collection. The implementation of the study was limited to approximately seven lessons, limiting participants’ selection and collection of abundant data.

The literature in corpus analysis in these types of linguistic analysis models is extensive

The range of students analyzed limited reliability and generalizability of the resulting categories of this study.

Students’ steps and procedures to cope with tasks outside the classroom were not included as data could not be gathered in such scenario.

During the process of participant selection, some students left incomplete worksheets and showed reluctance to complete them, making difficult the process of sample selection Limitations 1. How do fostering student’s steps and procedures in writing reflect an influence in their language development in a long term?
2. What does the study of learner’s Cross-linguistic influence tells us about positive transference from L1? Further research Through the research we could identify the different procedures which seventh grade students followed when they did not know a word or when the word was confusing for them. It is important to highlight that all the students presented influence of L1 on these procedures when they coped with the written tasks Using Clues Borrowing from both languages Accommodating words Writing the word in Spanish Using the Dictionary Using clues to complete a written task is a helpful procedure because it allows students to use their memory to associate concepts in order to write unknown or confusing words; word endings or similar words of Spanish in English are the most common associations that students employ, thus, it is important that teachers implement during the English classes activities with word comparisons, also put into practice vocabulary with similar finalizations of Spanish in English to enhance students’ memory, cognitive processes and learning Borrowing from both languages is a procedure that permits students to complete writing tasks by using the acquired knowledge from both languages; since Spanish is the students’ mother tongue, students write sentences and words based on their L1 structures. Learners are then, aware of the differences and similarities that emerge through the target language learning process and by taking advantage of them, they use structures from both L1 and L2 to produce in L2 and convey their meaning Students use the vocabulary that they know to complete written tasks, but when they do not know a word, they accommodate it, this procedure of accommodating words helps students to put into practice the learned vocabulary and structures because it avoids the use of words whose spelling seem to be struggling. Re-writing the confusing words to find the best spelling facilitate students recognizing their mistakes because the process of checking their writings increases. Repeating and accommodating letters in a word is meaningful for students and could be fostered in early stages of EFL teaching Writing the word in Spanish is a procedure that students used when the word was unknown or confusing. This finding is crucial to understand how the target language production is mediated by L1 and how students perceive naturally the implementation of it at the production stage. Spanish influence is then, under the light of this study, not only a stage in language acquisition, but a recurrence and reality in the learner’s production (Ardila, 2005). Its use in EFL classes must be guided and supervised effectively, so students may feel relaxed about English and construct their new language in a comfortable and anxiety-free environment The use of the dictionary to look up the words that are unknown helps students in a significant way to learn new vocabulary and to complete written task faster. Teachers can use this procedure to enhance students to discover and acquire new words, however, not all the dictionaries provide students with the correct grammar structures, because in Spanish these structures are not the same that in English, for this reason, this source must be used with the proper guidance, in order that students’ learning would be significant Some pedagogical appreciations that our study concludes... Cross-linguistic interaction and language transference are concluded in this study as natural instances of L1 use in L2 learning. Without classifying this use as an interference or facilitation, L1 plays a relevant role for the acquisition of grammar structures, vocabulary and also writing style techniques. During the process of data collection and implementation of tasks for learning, the use of Spanish emerged through the tasks as a natural and necessary source to accomplish the lesson and activities goals; not only as a circumstantial tool, but also explained and supported by the students as a structurally organized use. This tells us how Spanish prohibition in ELF scenarios is a questionable premise, which in some cases does not include learners’ perceptions and learning styles. For our own professional growth, this research study represents one of many accomplished goals. Mostly, because it shapes our vision as teacher-researchers and generates new perspectives and practices when it comes to understand student’s needs and learning realities. Adopting a new approach towards the role of L1 in language classrooms, encompassing and fostering student’s own practices in learning may brought successful results and effective monitoring of learning for our students
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