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Audism, Oralism, BiBi, & ASL
Transcript of Audism, Oralism, BiBi, & ASL
Sami Blaker, Brianna Linderman, Kaitlin Tomlinson
What is AUDISM?
Audism is the notion that one is superior
based on one’s ability to hear or to
behave in the manner of one who hears,
or that life without hearing is futile and
miserable, or an attitude based on
pathological thinking which results in a
negative stigma towards anyone who
does not hear.
What is Audism, REALLY?
The oppression of the Deaf community by hearing individuals.
Judgments and discrimination based on a person’s ability, or lack of, to hear.
Calling someone an audist
would be the same as calling someone a racist.
History of Audism
The term “audism” was first coined in 1977
by Tom Humphries.
Humphries used the term in his dissertation entitled, “Communicating Across Cultures Deaf-Hearing and Language Learning”.
Although coined in 1977, according to Northeastern University professor Harlan Lane, audism has existed for many centuries.
Phonocentrism: The Root of Audism
the belief that sounds and speech are inherently superior to, or more primary than, written language.
Linguists and philosophers have used the term to criticize what they see as a disdain for written language.
"The belief that life without hearing is FUTILE and MISERABLE, that hearing loss is a TRAGEDY and a SCOURAGE on mankind, and that deaf people should STRUGGLE to be as much like hearing people as possible."
AG Bell's Nightmare - Tony McGregor
Do you think being deaf is a disability?
Are hearing devices necessary for a successful deaf person?
Is learning ASL a disadvantage?
Is SEE the best way to bridge the communication gap?
Shouldn't deaf people just learn to talk?
You might be an AUDIST.
Some deaf people, along with hearing people, believe that the inability to hear is inferior, making them an audist.
Typically, when people are audists, they shun the Deaf community and culture and are labeled with a "d".
Forms of Audism
Audism is found in Deaf education and other corporate institutions and groups that deal with deafness.
Dysconscious Audism: favors what is normal for the hearing community. This limits deaf culture and pride.
Greatly impacts deaf education in terms of shunning ASL in favor of communication that is based on the English language.
Audism is as relevant in our society as racism or sexism.
Deaf people all over the world get denied jobs, social perks, and general help in “hearing situations”.
Issues on Audism
Deaf individuals rely on hearing aids and lip reading in order to communicate with others. A mechanism for accomplishing the skills of speech is by not using signing at all, completely relying on the training of speaking.
"A person who is
bicultural can move
freely within and
between two different
implies an understanding of
the mores, customs, practices, and expectations of members of a cultural group and the ability to adapt to their expectations"
(Finnegan, 1992, p.1)
"American Sign Language is a visually perceived language based on a naturally evolved system of articulated hand gestures and their placement relative to the body, along with non-manual markers such as facial expressions, head movements, shoulder raises, mouth morphemes, and movements of the body."
"A person able to communicate in two different languages"
Worldwide conference to decide the future of
Decision was made to declare Oralism as the only approved method of deaf education.
-U.S. and Britain opposed
-Deaf teachers lost their jobs
-The president of Gallaudet College decided to retain sign language on the Gallaudet campus.
Milan Conference - 1880
This monumental decision may have been largely responsible for sign language's survival.
Oralism = deaf conform to the hearing world
BiBi = why can't we have both?
ASL = be who you are and be proud as hell.
What are the Issues?
BiBi Issues and Questions
What is BiBi Education? Children are taught both ASL and English (or their respective languages), ASL being the primary.
ASL vs. Oralism: Hearing parents tend to teach born-deaf children to be oral rather than everyone learning sign language, the child's natural language.
With that, Deaf children who are raised oral do not know how to communicate effectively within their community. This also leads to inter-community judgments and bad reflections on the parents.
Why isn't BiBi used more? Most people are unaware of BiBi education, therefore results and findings are neither better nor worse than strictly ASL or stricly Oralism.
Who Decides?: ASL v. BiBi v. Oralism
Ultimately, the Deaf child in need has no choice, unless they are at an age of better understanding. This topic is still controversial due to the fact that (usually) hearing parents are making these educational and social decisions for their Deaf children. Parents hear about the negatives of strictly ASL or BiBi language learning and opt for Oralism for their own ease.
"Audism." Audism. Deaf Websites, 2013. Web. 01 Dec. 2014.
"Audism: Understanding Its Meaning and Implications in the Deaf Community." University of Oregon Video RSS. N.p., 30 Sept. 2011. Web. 02 Dec. 2014.
Bauman, H-D. L. "Audism: Exploring the Metaphysics of Oppression."Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education 9.2 (2004): 239-46. Gallaudet University, Sept. 2007. Web. 21 Nov. 2014.
Eckert, Richard C., and Amy J. Rowley. "Audism: A Theory and Practice of Audiocentric Privilege." Academia.edu. Sagepub, 2013. Web. 01 Dec. 2014.
Finnegan, M. (1992). Bilingual-bicultural education. The Endeavor, 3, 1-8. The American Society for Deaf Children.
Lane, Harlan L. The Mask of Benevolence: Disabling the Deaf Community. New York: Knopf, 1992. Print.
Lapiak, Jolanta. “Milan 1880.” The Infamous in Signlang History. Web
"Signing, Alexander Graham Bell, and the NAD." PBS. PBS, 2007. Web. 02 Dec. 2014.
Stevens, Lisa. “Biography William C Stokoe Jr.” Web.
"In the Bilingual Education Act of 1968, Americans institutionalized the premise that children are best educated in their most fluent language. [As of 1990's] Neither the laws that provide funding for bilingual education programs, nor the laws that require those programs in school ... have been applied to ASL-using children."
The Mask of Benevolence, Harlan Lane