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Respiratory System

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Treasa Powathil

on 11 October 2014

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Transcript of Respiratory System


- responsible for the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide

-regulates homeostasis between atmosphere+blood and between blood+body cells

-sustains external/internal respiration
External Respiration
Inspiration: act of taking air into the lungs
-diaphragm contracts
-breath 02 through nose
-passes down larnyx
-splits off from esophagus into trachea
-branches in bronchi
- pass through bronchioles
- fill up alveoli, location of gas exchange

-oxygen passes through walls of each alveolus into the capillaries
-oxygen enters the blood in capillaries
- red blood cells travel to heart
-heart sends the oxygenated blood to all cells in body and deoxygenated blood to lungs

-organ in the chest
-allows body to take in oxygen and expell CO2 (gas exchange)
- inflates/deflates under influence of diaphragm/intercostal muscles

-fliters the air we breathe
-branches in bronchi

-two large tubes which the trachea branches into
-sheet of muscle beneath lungs
-separates a chest cavity from the abdominal cavity
-holds vocal cords
-responsible for producing voice
-helps us swallow and breathe
- flap of tissue
-prevents food particles from going to respiratory tubes
-individual air sacs
-located inside the lungs
-surrounded by capillaries
-smaller tubes branched out from bronchi
-hair-like structures
-lines nasal passages
-traps foreign particles from air
-sweeps toward throat to protect lungs
-small blood vessels
-surrounds alveoli
-exchanges important substances and waste
By: Julianne Kim, Kathryn Moriarty, and Treasa Powathil
Respiratory Diseases

-the upper throat in which the trachea, larynx, and epiglottis are located
Asthma: respiratory pathways get irratated, bronchioles compress

Respiratory Diseases
Emphysema: Alveoli breakdown, results in less area for gas
exchange w/ alveoli's blood

Pulmonary tuberculosis
- Bacteria infects lungs
-less elasticity of blood capillaries surrounding alveoli, decreases gas exchange between air and blood

Respiratory Disorders
-Disorders produce tissue damage bronchi and alveoli efffectiveness

-When tissues damaged respiration is difficult

-Smoking causes chronic irritation to respiratory tissues and constrains cellular metabolism

-Airborne materials (pollen)produce respiratory problems due to allergic reactions
-exchanges oxygen and carbon dioxide between the atmosphere and blood and between blood and body cells
-levels of equilibrium of 02 and CO2
- interconnected between reliant systems

Lung cancer: uncontrolled cell growth in lung tissue, leads to coughing, shortness of breath, bronchitis, or pneumonia, death

- infects lungs

-causes alveoli to collect mucus
Bronchitis: repiratory pathways infected
-overproduction of mucus
O2 Retrival methods

- simple diffusion
- take in 02 w/out lungs
Ex. Arthropods, amphibians

-take in 02 w/ lungs
Ex. most mammals

guard cells contract/expand,stomate releases 02
-Ex. plants

Expiration: air flows out through the lungs
-diaphragm relaxes
- C02 travels through same pathway as 02, but backwards

-no real muscle
needs assistance from diaphragm/intercostal muscles

- contracts/relaxes, allows volume of lungs to change

- increasing volume decreasing pressure

Fish + 02
-dissolved 02 in water
-taken in through gills

-has lungs
-uses gills too

* O2 can only pass through wet membranes
Internal Respiration
Respiratory System Recap
The trachea leads into the:

a. bronchioles
b. esophagus
c. bronchi
d. pharynx
Air moves...
a. high to low pressure
b. low to high pressure
c. in the direction of the breath
d. with wind currents
What is the difference between external and internal respiration?
What is one way all respiratory diseases are connected?
gas exchanged between alveoli and pulmonary capillaries
-via diffusion (high to low concentration)
-diffuse through thin membrane

What is another name for the larynx?
a. voice box
b. epiglottis
c. capillary
d. carcinoma

What contracts during inhalation?
a. alveoli
b. lungs
c. diaphragm
Gas exchange in the lungs happens via the process of:
a. osmosis
b. active transport
c. diffusion
d. mitosis

Oxygen can only pass through _____ membranes.
a. inflated
b. wet
c. dry
d. diffused
a. esophagus
b. epiglottis
c. alveoli
d. lungs
What is the difference between pulmonary respiration and cellular respiration?
Respiratory System
What organ is the arrow pointing to?
causes: irritants (smoke, dust, ex.)

1. deep inhalation, closed larynx
2. big increase in pressure in lungs
3. larynx opens suddenly
4. irritants released from mouth
sudden movements of diaphragm

-diaphragm may be irritated
-substance in the blood
-eaten too\ fast
cause: nasal mucous irritation
When sleepy or drowsy...lungs don't receive enough oxygen
-shortage of oxygen
-deep long breath
1. deep inhale
2. closed larynx, suddenly opens
3. expulsion of irritants (nose, mouth)

Green, Hank. "Circulatory & Respiratory Systems -CrashCourse Biology #27." YouTube. YouTube, 30 July 2012. Web. 30 Mar. 2014.

Kaur, Nirvair. "How Breathing Works." YouTube. YouTube, 04 Oct. 2012. Web. 30 Mar. 2014.

Kshupp. "Quizlet." Coding Chapter 8. Quizlet, n.d. Web. 06 Apr. 2014.

"Photosynthesis in Higher Plants." Photosynthesis in Higher Plants. Kshitij Education India Private Limited, n.d. Web. 06 Apr. 2014.

"Respiratory System." Respiratory System. Hillendale Elementary School, n.d. Web. 02 Apr. 2014.

Shrestha, Sulav. "Mechanism of Cough and Sneeze." Medchrome. Medchrome, 5 Apr. 2011. Web. 02 Apr. 2014.

Parts/ Organs
Term Origins
- spire = to breathe

- pulmon = lungs

- in = inside

- ex = outside

(organ prefixes specific to organ)
Robert Boyle - physicist interested in the weight and pressure of air
-accurate hypotheses in 17th century
- Hippocrates saw air as "instrument of the body"
- Galenic Doctrine seen as maxim for 1500 yrs.
Boyle's Law: if the volume of the gas decreases the pressure increases proportionally
Priestly's Breathing/Photosynthesis Experiment
- paths and cycles

- high to low pressure/concentration

-interelated to circulatory system

- product/ reactant cycle with plants

- surface area

* air moves from high to low pressure
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