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HIIT Tutorial

SEACSM
by

David Elmer

on 30 September 2014

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Transcript of HIIT Tutorial

Performance
Health
Disease
HIIT protocols
(1950s)
(2000s)
higher intensity
shorter duration
lower intensity
longer duration
5 sec
5 min
1 min
2 min
3 min
4 min
30 sec
interval length:
intensity:
50% - - 70% Tmax
peak anaerobic power
100% VO2max
90% - 100% VO2max
80% - 90% VO2max
60%
higher intensity
shorter duration
lower intensity
longer duration
5 sec
5 min
1 min
2 min
3 min
4 min
30 sec
interval length:
intensity:
peak anaerobic power
100% VO2max
90% - 100% VO2max
80% - 90% VO2max
higher intensity
shorter duration
lower intensity
longer duration
5 sec
5 min
1 min
2 min
3 min
4 min
30 sec
interval length:
intensity:
peak anaerobic power
100% VO2max
90% - 100% VO2max
80% - 90% VO2max
High-Intensity Interval Training
popularized by Emil Zatopek
image: http://juliosalashernandez.blogspot.com/2011/01/emile-zatopek.html
image: http://wishingwellmedicalsupply.com/medical-equipment-rentals/hospital-bed-rental/
recently used for rehabilitation and disease management
health benefits
5 sec
5 min
1 min
2 min
3 min
4 min
30 sec
50% - - 70% Tmax
peak anaerobic power
100% VO2max
90% - 100% VO2max
80% - 90% VO2max
60%
VO2max:
10.9%
1.5%
5.0%
20.8%
(Creer 2004)
7.5%
11.1%
typical training day:
50 x 200m at critical velocity (85% VO2max)
40 x 200m at 100% velocity, 200m jog rest
6 x 400m at 90% velocity, 10 min rest
50 x 200m at critical velocity
(Billat, 2001)
CHD, CAD
post bypass surgery
percutaneous coronary interventions
metabolic syndrome
etc...

increased VO2max
improved fat oxidation and insulin sensitivity
improved endothelial function
improved calcium handling
Rognmo (2004), Amundsen (2008), Moholdt (2009), Munk (2009)
Coronary Artery Disease
4 x 4 min at 80 - 90% VO2max
3 min recovery at 50 - 60% VO2max
17 - 19% increase in VO2max
Rognmo - 0.63% per session
improved early-diastolic relaxation rate
- average time post-surgery = 11 days
VO2max improvements:
Metabolic syndrome
Tjonna (2008)
Hanzell, 2010
4 x 4 min at 90% HRmax
3 min recovery at 70% HRmax
35% increase in VO2max
55 years old
Medications: angiotensin II blockers, calcium antagonists, alpha-blockers, statins, aspirin, metformin
VO2max
5K TT
61 years old, some with multiple diseased arteries
Wingate
Peak
Power
Wingate
Average
Power
10:2
10:4
medications: beta-blockers, statins, diuretics, ACE inhibitors, aspirin, clodipogrel
30:4
9.3%
other benefits:
9.2%
improved diastolic function
3.8%
reduced in-stent restenosis
increased flow-mediated dilation
reduced C-reactive protein levels
5.2%
3.5%
3.0%
9.5%
8.5%
4.2%
12.1%
6.5%
other benefits:
improved endothelial function
improved insulin signalling
increased skeletal muscle biogenesis
tighter E-C coupling
reduced blood glucose concentration
reduced lipogenesis
reduced blood pressure
reduced body weight and % fat
better than continuous training
Obese
Schjerve (2008), Tjonna (2009)
47 years old
14 years old
9.0%
(Whyte 2010)
6.4%
Gibala, 2006 /
Sprint Intervals Vs. Traditional Endurance Training
4 x 4 min at 90% VO2max
3 min recovery at 50-70% VO2max
Schjerve - 33% increase in VO2max
Tjonna - 12% increase in VO2max
other benefits:
improved endothelial function
improved calcium handling
reduced BMI
reduced % fat
SIT
ET
50KJ TT
750 KJ TT
10.1%
7.5%
4.1%
3.5%
Muscle Oxidative
Capacity
Equal significant
increase in each group
Total Exercise Time
2.5 Hr
10.5 Hr
Burgomaster, 2008
Burke, 1994
Esfarjani, 2006
Edge, 2005
:30
2:00
VO2 peak
LT
5%
6%
19.4%
22.4%
VT
19.5%
18.5%
Modality
Interval
Duration
Interval
Intensity
Recovery
Duration
Recovery
Intensity
Study
Duration
Training Fx
Cycling
4x / week
7 weeks
:30
2:00
85-95%
VO2 peak
85-95%
VO2 peak
:30
2:00
Rest
Rest
RESULTS
Modality
Interval
Duration
Interval
Intensity
Recovery
Duration
Recovery
Intensity
Study
Duration
Training Fx
Cycling
3x / week
2 weeks
4-6
:30
4 min
Interval
Number
--
40-120
Min
250%
VO2 peak
unloaded
--
--
65%
VO2 peak
Modality
Interval
Duration
Interval
Intensity
Recovery
Duration
Recovery
Intensity
Study
Duration
Training Fx
Cycling
3x / week
2 weeks
4-6
:10
Interval
Number
4-6
unloaded
:30
4-6
:10
All out
All out
All out
4 min
2 min
4 min
unloaded
unloaded
RESULTS
Modality
Interval
Duration
Interval
Intensity
Recovery
Duration
Recovery
Intensity
Study
Duration
Training Fx
Cycling
3x / week
5 weeks
2 min
Interval
Number
--
unloaded
20-30
minutes
120-140%
LT
80-95%
LT
1 min
--
6-10
--
* Total work matched per session between groups
2:00
ET
VO2 peak
LT
12%
10%
8%
10%
RSA
13%
8.5%
RESULTS
Creer, 2004
Modality
Interval
Duration
Interval
Intensity
Recovery
Duration
Recovery
Intensity
Study
Duration
Training Fx
Cycling
2x / week
4 weeks
4-10
:30
Interval
Number
--
50 watts
--
All out
--
4 min
--
--
* Both groups maintained normal cycling training schedule over the course of the study. C~8hr/wk , ST ~5 hr/wk
VO2 peak
VL EMG
Amplitude
.2 L
27%
--
EMG
Median
Frequency
20%
SIT
Control
.2 L
--
Peak
Power
Mean
Power
6%
4%
6%
3%
Modality
Interval
Duration
Interval
Intensity
Recovery
Duration
Recovery
Intensity
Study
Duration
Training Fx
Running
4x / week
2 - HIT
2 - LSD
10 weeks
8
Interval
Number
12
50 watts
:30
VVO2max
130%
VVO2max
1:1
--
4.5
60%
Tmax
--
--
--
60 min
75%
VVO2max
Helgerud, 2007
Modality
Interval
Duration
Interval
Intensity
Recovery
Duration
Recovery
Intensity
Study
Duration
Training Fx
Running
8 weeks
47
Interval
Number
4
4 min
90-95%
HRmax
1:1
--
3 min
15 sec
--
--
45 min
70%
HRmax
3 x's / wk
--
25 min
85%
HRmax
--
--
70%
HRmax
90-95%
HRmax
70%
HRmax
VO2max
SV
5.5%
9.9%
12.5%
Q
:15 sec
4 min
7.2%
10.5%
25 min
9.4%
--
--
--
45 min
--
--
--
RESULTS
6.6%
5.8%
La
Production
Take home:
< 3% total training volume results in MU recruitment and La production
EMG frequency and amplitude = synchronization
SIT improved neuromuscular and metabolic function in trained cyclist
Take home:
HIIT more effective than LSD at improving VO2max
HIIT VO2max improvements driven by SV
interval intensity = VO2max
Warburton, 2005
Coronary artery disease
55 years old
Take Home:
Significant Increases in:
VO2peak
Oxidative capacity
Performance
CHO and Lipid oxidization markers
Whole body lipid oxidization
Significant Decreases in:
Glycogen and PCR depletion
Whole body CHO oxidization

At 10% of work completed SIT is a time effective strategy to induce rapid adaptation to skeletal muscle
Take Home:
Offer further support for the work of Gibala and Burgomaster
10 sec group completed 50% of the work in 1/3 of the time
Suggest that the SIT stimulus driving adaptation is the generation of peak power
Training
Peak
Power
Training
Power
Maintenance
2.9%
96%
95%
89%
84%
82%
58%
* each session was to exhaustion
Take Home:
Both protocols caused similar significant changes in VO2, LT, and VT
Intensity not duration might drive adaptation
Take home:
When total work is matched both ET and HIT lead to increases in VO2peak and LT over 5 weeks
HIIT leads to greater RSA increases
medications: ACE inhibitors, cardiac glycoside, diuretics, nitrates, beta blockers, calcium channel blockers, anticoagulants
11.8%
(Warburton 2005)
Modality
Interval
Duration
Interval
Intensity
Recovery
Duration
Recovery
Intensity
Study
Duration
Training Fx
Interval
Number
Run/walk
2 days/week
16 weeks
stairs
ergometers
--
30 min
65% VO2max
--
--
90% VO2max
2 min
40% VO2max
2 min
8
HIIT
ET
TTE at 90%
Aerobic Power
+ 485%
+ 250%
+ 31.82%
+ 9.5%
Take home:
In people with CAD, HIIT is significantly better than ET for improving time-to-exhaustion and aerobic power
Whyte, 2010 / Harmer, 2008
Obese men
Modality
Interval
Duration
Interval
Intensity
Recovery
Duration
Recovery
Intensity
Study
Duration
Training Fx
Interval
Number
3 days/week
2-7 weeks
cycling
all-out
4.5 min
40 W
30 sec
4 - 6
Results:
9.5% increase in VO2max after only 6 sessions
Mean anaerobic power of Wingate test increased by 3.6%
increased fat and reduced carbohydrate oxidation
reduction in fasting insulin concentration
Laursen, 2002
Modality
Interval
Duration
Interval
Intensity
Recovery
Duration
Recovery
Intensity
Study
Duration
Training Fx
Cycling
2x / week
Plus normal
Training
4 weeks
8
Interval
Number
8
unloaded
Pmax
120%
Tmax
4.5 min
65%
Hr max
60%
Tmax
12
30 sec.
175% Peak
Power
Output
Take home:
Significant adaptations are possible in a very short amount of time in diseased individuals
SIT can improve health of obese individuals and diabetics
60%
Tmax
Pmax
unloaded
unloaded
VO2max
Delta
Peak
Power
5.4
4.8%
*6.1%
Delta
Average TT
Velocity
120%
Tmax
65%
Hr max
*8.1%
5.8%
4.5 min
5%
4.2%
3%
3%
RESULTS
VO2max
VVO2max
6.2%
7.8%
6.4%
Tmax
:30
60%
Tmax
*9.1%
35%
Velocity
LT
3000 M
TT
11.7%
3.4%
7.3%
Control
32%
--
--
--
--
2.1%
--
Modality
Interval
Duration
Interval
Intensity
Recovery
Duration
Recovery
Intensity
Cycling
Until 35 min or exhaustion
:15
Interval
Number
0%
:60
:15
100% VO2max
100% VO2max
100% VO2max
:15
:15
:60
50% VO2max
0%
Guiraud, 2010
Coronary heart disease patients
65 years old
Control
1%
medications: anti-platelet agents, beta blockers, calcium channel blockers, ACE inhibitors, angiotensin receptor agonist, statins, nitrates
Frequency
1 bout per protocol
-1%
-1%
Until 35 min or exhaustion
Until 35 min or exhaustion
Until 35 min or exhaustion
:60
100% VO2max
Take home:
:60
50% VO2max
protocol TTE
15:15 (0%)
Use of Pmax and 60% Tmax = most consistent improvements
Support the idea that training at VO2peak is the most efficient way to increase VO2peak in highly trained individuals
Trend toward larger improvements in 65% HR recovery group
15:15 (50%)
60:60 (0%)
60:60 (50%)
1724 sec *
733 sec
1525 sec *
836 sec
time above 90% HRmax
Gormley, 2006
433 sec
441 sec
329 sec *
429 sec
Modality
Interval
Duration
Interval
Intensity
Recovery
Duration
Recovery
Intensity
Study
Duration
Training Fx
Cycling
3-4x / week
6 weeks
5 min
Interval
Number
--
50% VO2
Reserve
40 min
95%
VO2max
75%
VO2max
5 min
--
5
--
% finished protocol
63% *
16%
42%
0%
RPE
--
15 *
17
17
18
Take home:
60 min
15:15 protocol with complete rest between intervals is well tolerated and equally effective for time spent at high-intensity
50%
VO2max
--
--
60:60 protocol with recovery at 50% is equally as effective but takes half of the time...
VO2max
ml/kg/min
3.4
7.2
4.8
95% VO2
Reserve
75% VO2
Reserve
50% VO2
Reserve
Ciolac, 2010
healthy, but at high-risk for hypertension
Interval
Duration
Interval
Intensity
Recovery
Duration
Recovery
Intensity
Study
Duration
Training Fx
Walk/run
3x / week
16 weeks
1 min
40 min
80-90%
60-70%
2 min
--
50-60%
--
* Exercise volume equal among all
groups via manipulations of
exercise duration and frequency.
*Both protocols lasted 40 min
Results:
HIIT was equal to or better than ET for improving:
Control
--
VO2max
Time-to-exhaustion
insulin and insulin sensitivity
systolic and diastolic blood pressure
Take home:
HIIT was an effective way to reduce the risk of developing hypertension in high-risk individuals
Intensity = VO2 improvement
Makrides, 1990
Modality
Interval
Duration
Interval
Intensity
Recovery
Duration
Recovery
Intensity
Study
Duration
Training Fx
Cycling
3x / week
12 weeks
5 min
Interval
Number
5-7
45-65%
5 min
65-85%
65-85%
3-5 min
3-5 min
5-7
45-65%
Modality
Age
20-30
60-70
No difference
between groups
comparison of adaptations to HIIT in young and old men
Results:
both young and old men showed significant increases in:
VO2, VCO2, VE, cardiac output, max heart rate, stroke volume, a-vO2d, fatigue index, lactate threshold
no difference between young and old men for ANY variable
(Helgerud 2007)
Take home:
Absolute performance tend to be using prolonged vs. supra-maximal HIIT
Performance
Addition of some form of HIIT to traditional ET leads to increased performance
Potential mechanisms include increased:
MU synchronization
VO2max
SV

HIIT ( vVO2max, 60% Tmax) leads to larger absolute performance gains than SIT
Results:
Disease
Health
HIIT is an effective and safe rehabilitation strategy
Coronary artery disease
Heart failure
Diabetes
Metabolic Syndrome
Obesity
ACE inhibitors
Beta blockers
Calcium channel blockers
Statins
Nitrates
Diuretics
etc...
HIIT causes similar or greater metabolic and performance adaptions when compared to traditional ET
SIT is a time effective method to induce rapid muscle adaptation in this population
With equal volume intensity = VO2 gains
Age does not appear to effect adaptation to HIIT
In a diseased population, the potential gains are very large
AND
the gains from HIIT can have a large impact on reducing the risk of death
diseases:
medications:
most studies employ the 4 x 4 min at 90%, 3 min rest protocol...
Questions?
Diabetics
Little, 2011
Modality
Interval
Duration
Interval
Intensity
Recovery
Duration
Recovery
Intensity
Study
Duration
Training Fx
Interval
Number
cycling
3 days/week
2 weeks
90% HRmax
1 min
50 W
1 min
10
Diabetics
Results:
improved glucose control
increased GLUT4
increased mitochondrial capacity
Take home:
HIIT can improve outlook in people with diabetes
Heart Failure
Wisloff, 2007
77 years old
LV ejection fraction of 29%
VO2max = 13 ml/kg/min
4 x 4 min at 90-95% HRmax
3 min recovery at 50-70% HRmax
Results:
HIIT alone improved:
LV end-diastolic volume, LV ejection fraction, endothelial and mitochondrial function
Full transcript