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Communication- is the process of social interactions, sharin

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Kelsey Nordengren

on 5 December 2013

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Transcript of Communication- is the process of social interactions, sharin

Definitions
Communication
- The process of social interactions, sharing ideas, and rejecting a form of interaction. Communication requires sending messages that are understandable (encoding) and receiving messages that can be comprehended (decoding).

Communication disorder
- puts limitations on receiving facts, ideas, feelings, and desires. This also may affect hearing, listening, reading, and writing.

Speech vs. Language disorders
Speech Disorders
- Difficulties in producing oral language like: speech sounds, a normal flow of speech, and producing a voice.
Language Disorders
- Problems in comprehension, expression, and difficulty with: phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, and pragmatics.
Assessment of Progress
What a child talks/ should talk about
How the child talks/ how the child should be taught
How the child functions with linguistics
How the child uses their language

Temporal Lobe
The part of the brain that controls speech
Selective Mutism

Impairment of the ability to articulate speech sounds
Articulation
Involves the movement of mouth muscles & articulators
Hard to understand & become aggravated at their incapability to communicate
Physiologically incapable of producing specific sounds
Children with Select Mutism may speak fine in certain situations (perhaps at home), but find themselves unable to speak in other social situations that make them uncomfortable.
Formerly known as Elective Mutism: the name was changed officially in 1994.
4 Types of Articulation Disorders
Substitution:
Distortion:

Additions:
Omissions:
Replaces a sound for another
Attempts so hard to correctly utter a sound, actually ends up distorting it
Regularly utters an extra syllable
Omits or fails to articulate specific sounds
Age 3:
h, w, m, n, b, p, f
Age 4:
d, t, k, g, y, ng
Age 6:
l, v, sh, ch, j
Age 8/9:
r, s, z, th
The term "elective" makes it sound like the kids are "choosing" or showing preference by only communicating with a select few.
Rather than something used to spite people (which it's not), you need to know that this condition is about anxiety.
Movement of...
Lips, tongue, teeth, jaw, velum (Soft palate), hard palate, alveolar ridge, missing teeth, under/open/cross bites.
Symptoms
Their articulators change positions causing interruption in their airflow
Causes
Self-esteem or inner self issues
Anxiety Disorder
Genetic predisposition to anxiety
A speech, language, or hearing disorder
Physiologically incapable of production in specific sounds via use of their teeth, tongue, facial muscles and nerves
In the Brain
Causes
Hearing Loss
Illness
Developmental Disorders (e.g; Autism)
Neurological Disorders (e.g; Cerebral Palsy)
Genetic Syndromes
Reasons for Concern
8-9months-
Doesn’t babble using consonant sounds
12months-
Doesn’t produce 1 word other than mom/dad
18+months-
Child uses mostly vowel sounds and gestures for communication
3yrs-
Speech cannot be understood by strangers
3yrs-
Often leaves out consonants from words
4yrs-
Speech is still difficult to understand
6yrs-
Child is still unable to produce many sounds.
7+yrs-
Leaving out, substituting or distorting sounds
If child is embarrassed or worried about his speech at any age.
The amygdala ("fear center") is more easily excited
In stressful situations, the amygdala gets danger signals from the SNS
The set of reations that follow help the child protect themselves
Therapy Games
Consistently will not speak in situations where they're expected to, even though they will talk under other circumstances.
This has been going on for at least a month
It's hindering the person's social communication, causing problems at school or work
It's not because they're unfamiliar or uncomfortable with the language being spoken
May physically freeze or be unable to move when expected to speak
Comfortable speaking to certain people privately, but not publicly.
They may also show any of the following:
Excessive shyness, fear of social embarrassment
Anxiety disorder (social phobia), social isolation/withdrawal
Temper tantrums, clingy/controlling behavior
Assisting Assessment
Because Autism often involves social avoidance, the two can be confused: especially if the child is very young.
To clarify, assessment should be focused on anxiety and cognitive functioning
Ask parents to make a list of times and settings where the child does and does not speak
Lower barriers between school and home
DON'T play the blame game
Being a Helpful Teacher
NEVER attempt to force a child with selective mutism to speak
Ease them into the classroom, meeting them first in more quiet, private environments
Praise nonverbal communication and gradually move onto praising verbal communication
Apraxia
Limitations put on how a person tries to express themselves correctly and consistently.

It is NOT caused by weak or paralyzed speech muscles like: face, lips, or tongue.
Two types of Apraxia
Developmental Apraxia
present from birth
genetic
can develop from the child's language development

Aquired Apraxia
can occur at any age
caused by damage to the brain: stroke, tumor, head injury, or illness.
Symptoms
Speech Language Pathologists
Treatment varies depending on the child's severity, age, and awareness of it
Uses speech-generated devices
Advises those in the community on how to prevent speech and language disorders
Help the individual and family understand the disorder in order to achieve effective communication outside of home
Stutter;
Increase their fluency
Aphasia;
Improve language comprehension and production
Learning
Disorders;
Improve comprehension of speech, reading, production of spoken & written language
Articulation;
How to make sounds correctly
Treatment Possibilities
Modify environment
Stimulus Fading
Shaping/Positive Reinforcement
Systematic Desensitization (overcome fear in small steps)
Cognitive-Behavioral Interventions
If the child does speak or communicate more, celebrate in LOW-KEY ways that won't make them uncomfortable
trouble putting sounds and syllables together in the right order
difficulty using inflections, rhythms, and stress on speech
trouble with long complicated words
may have problems chewing and swallowing
Interventions
speech-language therapy-
learns to develop other ways of communicating
physical therapy-
helps with muscle strength, and chewing and swallowing
occupational therapy-
learn basic living skills

Stuttering
Definition: A disturbance in the rhythm of speech characterized by intermittent or irregular, spasmodic blocking or repetition of sounds or words.
Communication Disorders
ED 360
Rachel Pascoe
Tiffany Rupiper
Clare Lamberti
Kelsey Nordengren
Treatment
Therapy is intense, usually 3-5 times per week.
Important that treatment is individual and later include small group treatment.
Treatment very specific on prompts, subtle stresses and precise sounds
The best way for a parent to successfully continue at home is to videotape therapy sessions for parents to watch

~Occurs in about 1% of the world's population
~Usually develops during the early stages of childhood.
~It can occur in adulthood, but it is rare.
~ Stuttering is more common among boys than girls.

Stutters will usually develop a fear of public speaking and speaking in general.
They may become less social and shy
Causes problems in social, academic and work situations
Treatment
Speech Therapy
Costly and time consuming
Work on articulation and increase fluency
Communication development starts as early as a fetus in the womb.
baby is able to hear human voices that allow them to start to recognize verbal sounds, their parent’s voices, and discriminating certain sounds from others.
However, 5% of young children have recognizable speech or communication disorders by the time they enter the first grade
What can teachers do?
Open the lines of communication
Make them feel comfortable in your classroom
Do not rush them when they are reading or speaking
Activity Time!
Find a partner
Take out something to write with
Wait and listen for directions
Family involvement : Children with communication disorders get an Individual family service plan (IFSP).
parents can work with their child constantly to hopefully improve.
The children with communication disorders also look towards their peers to help them figure out how to communicate.
Early Signs of a developing Communication Disorder
Speech is slow to develop
Voice tone, pitch, or volume that is out of normal range
Inability to produce certain sounds
Lack of fluency
Substitution/omission of sounds
Stuttering
Inability to understand spoken language (ranges from mild impairment to total incomprehension)
Production of speech that does not make sense gramatically
Inability to understand or use written language
Development of Communication
Any Questions?
Phonology-
refers to speech sounds and the order they are formed
Morphology-
the organization of words
Syntax-
organizing sentences so they are meaningful
Semantics-
attaching meaning and concepts with words
Pragmatics-
rules about using language for social purposes

Keys to Language Development
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