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2ºA The Middle Ages (I)

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Ondiz Ruiz

on 21 May 2015

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Transcript of 2ºA The Middle Ages (I)

Government and territory G
tHE CONQUEST
IV

VII
III
VI
The Middle Ages (I)
Germanic Peoples
Fall of Rome
The Visigothic
kingdom of
toledo
The Byzantine Empire
Islam I
The Carolingian Empire

VIII
Al-Andalus I

IX
Islam II
Christian Resistance
Al-Andalus II
Society and economic activitates
Muslim cities
City structure:
The houses and their desing
Medina
Was divided into quarters and it was protected by walls. It usually packed with walls .
All medinas have:
Other common spaces
:

WHAT IS ISLAM?

Islam is a new religion that emerged in the 7th century and was preached by Muhammad.

They lived in tribes so they had the same habits
AREAS OF CHRISTIAN RESISTANCE
OUR GROUP
They spoke Arabic language, like Arabian people
CANTABRIAN AREAS
PYRENEAN AREAS
ART AND CULTURE IN CHRISTIAN AREAS
THE CONQUEST(711-756)

THE INDEPENDENT EMIRATE(756-929)

THE CALIPHATE OF CÓRDOBA(929-1031)

GOVERMENT AND TERRITORIAL ORGANISATION
KINGDOM OF PAMPLONA

ARAGÓN

CATALAN

PRE-ROMANESQUE ART
ROMANESQUE ART
-Developed between the XI and the XII centuries in two different areas.
THIS WORK HAS BEEN DONE BY:
ALMU
LEIRE
ALFONSO
After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, The Franks settled in the north and north-west of Gaul.
Clovis became the first king of all the franks in 481. He converted the Gaul into Christianity and he got baptized. He and his descendants were later called the Merovingian Dynasty, because Clovis’ grandfather was called “Mérovée”.
CLOVIS
On the seventh century the kings started to give more power to the ‘Mayor of The Palace’. In 743 Charles Martel, one of them, defeated the Arabics who entered in the Gaul (Battle of Poitiers).
Battle of Poitiers
Charles Martel
Society
The entry of the Visigoths in Spain, was calm and without receiving rejection by the people who lived there at that time, King was the most important part of the Visigoth society member.
Origin of the Empire
In 751 Pippin The Short, son of Charles Martel, who was one “Mayor of the Palace”, declared king himself because he defeated the last Merovingian King.
Coronation
Pippin The Short
Characteristics
GOVERNMENT
THE EMPEROR
When Pippin the Short died his son Charlemagne or Charles the Great (742-814) became king of “France” from the year 768 after the year of his death. He was declared king by the Pope Leo III. He was protected by Charlemagne from his enemies in Rome so he helped him to get a high position position by crowning him Roman Emperor and Augustus of the Franks. Charlemagne expanded the Kingdom, because he wanted to re-establish the unity and splendour of the Western Roman Empire.
HIGH OFFICIALS
Seneschals, chamberlains and chancellors administrated the large territory of the Empire divided into 350 counties, ruled by counts, and marcher areas, ruled by marquises.
Public spaces like:
1)Mosque
2)Souk
3)Public bads
Arrabales
2)Fortress
1)Storehouse
3)Madrassas
1)
2)
3)
In Catalonia the most distinctive features are:
- The use of blind arches
- High bell towers like:

Churches of Sant Climent
-Include the Lombard and Byzantine styles.
-These styles can be seen throughout the exterior and interior of the building.

SANTA MARIA DE TAÜLL
-Is located in the Museu Nacional d'Art de Catalunya, Barcelona.
This is the Church
SOCIETY
SOCIAL PIRAMIDE
SURVEY
There was a "Piramide form Society". Frank society wasn't very fair.
ECONOMY
PIRAMIDE
INTERVIEW
SURVEY
Carolingian Society was based on agriculture.
Large Estates:
- Lord's fields
- Plots
CULTURE
The Church of the Abbey of Fulda
It's a church of apses contraponer, with the peculiarity that in Fulda the monk wanted to imitate the Church of San Pedro in Rome.

Murbach Abbey was a famous Benedictine monastery in Murbach, southern Alsace, in a valley at the foot of the Grand Ballon in the Vosges.
The monastery was founded in 727 by Eberhard, Count of Alsace.
Charles The Great wanted to raise the cultural level of the Empire, so he built the Palatine School where only nobles’ sons could study. It was directed by Alcwin the York during 8 years.
This school become a model for the foundation of others in Europe.


This period is known as “Carolignian revival” and begun in the year 800AD.
ART
Carolingian art was based on the Greek Classical art and the Christian art and also had influence of the Byzantine and Islam Empires.
Sculpture: Small Sculptures were cultural and artistic forms.
Architecture: There was a revival in The Carolingian architecture. It had Roman influence. It is reflected in some religious buildings and palaces. It is characterized by using the Latin cross, three arches, wooden decks, columns with capitals and cruciform pillars.
Mosaics and miniatures: The most notable works of art of the time were the mosaics of the Palatine School and miniatures that decorated their temples or The Gospels.
End of the Empire
Charlemagne expanded the Kingdom, because he wanted to copy the nobility of the Western Roman Empire. Later his Empire was divided between his grand-sons, sons of Louis the Pious in Treaty of Verdun.
Louis The Pious
MUSLIM
CULTURE
Mixing oriental and classical elements

Developed a very original culture

ORIENTAL INVENTIONS:

paper
gunpowder
compass
astrolabe
SCIENECE:
algebra
medicine
chemistry
HUMANITIES:
philosophy
history
literature
MUSLIM
ART
Most important
artistic achievements:

architecture
desing
POTTERY
METALWORK
IVORY PIECES
ARCHITECTURE
AND DESING
Poor-quality
used colums and pillars
HORSESHOE
ARCHES
VAULTED
ROOFS
Buildings was simple
covered with marble
and coloured tiles
DECORATION
EPIGRAPHY
TRACERY
ARABESQUE MOTIFS
MOSQUE
Most important buildings
COURTYARD
HALL OF
PRAYER
A fountain where the
attendants wash and
purify themselves
MUSLIMS

FERDINAND

PELAYO

KINGDOM OF ASTURIAS

KIGDOM OF LEÓN

KIGDOM OF CASTILLA Y LEÓN
Along the
Way of St James
Romanesque art was influenced by the French Romanesque style.Like the :
Covered area with
arches and
columns that
divides the space.
One wall of the
Kiblah
PALACES
here the caliphs lived
Were w

FEO

MONARCHY
AND
TERRITORIAL
ADMINISTRATION
STYLES
VISIGOTH STYLE
ASTURIAN STYLE
PALACE
Historical development
MONARCHY

The king rules over everyone
Chosen between an assembly of bishops and nobles.
• AULA REGIA
Was a council of nobles
given advise to the king
The historical development can be divided into two phases:
Political institutions in the Visigothic kingdom:
VIDEO
FIRST PERIOD
MOZARABIC STYLE

- 507 to 585.
- Conquered the Suebic kingdom
- Dominated northern region
- Integration the Hispano-Romans -> difficult
- 585 to 711.
- Byzantines were expelled from the Peninsula
- Conversion of the Visigoths to Catholicism and introduction of
Fuero Juzgo-> M
ade the assimilation of the Visigoths and the Hispano-Romans possible.
PHOTO:
TOLEDO COUNCILS
Religious meetings
After becoming Catholics, became a royal counsel organization.
Which gave adivise to the king.
SECOND PERIOD
THE ECONOMY
Society
Society:
It was divided in two parts that were:
Free people:
they didn´t need to depend in other
-They were two types of people:
The privileged and
underprivileged.
Serfs
They came from the slaves, they were tied to land.

CULTURE AND ART

Cause of the life of society
High culture it was connected with the Church.
The most representative was Saint Isidro
That was the author of the Etymologies encyclopedia

Visigothic art and architecture occupies theoretically V, VI and VII centuries. The Visigothic kingdom in Spain had a different capital and national art from other countries
ARCHITECTURE:
Visigothic buildings
were small
decorated with plants or animal relieve.
SCULPTURE:
They were founded in the decorated buildings
GOLD WORK:
Visigoths were expert metal workers.
created pieces decorated with precious or semi-precious stones, enamels and glass
• AGRICULTURE:
o When the Visigothic economy was founded.
o When the large estates of the Roman period were maintained.
o Belonged to nobility and to church.
o Worked by settlers and serfs.
The divion of the Western part of the Roman Empire
FIFTH CENTURY
SIXTH CENTURY
SEVENTH CENTURY
The end of the Empire
SOCIETY
ECONOMIC
ACTIVITIES
Emperor JUSTINIANO had total power
CIVIL SERVANTS
AGRICULTURE
TRADE
THE GERMANIC TRIBES
POLITICAL ORGANISATION OF THE GERMANIC KINGDOMS
Developed from the Roman Empire art
Incorporated influences from oriental art
CHURCHES
Large DOMES
RELIGION, CULTURE AND ART
MOSAICS, represented RELIGIOUS THEMES
ICONS, were painted in GOLD colour
After the fall of the Roman Empire the Germanic people spread throughout the territory and formed kingdoms.
ECONOMY AND SOCIETY
ROMANESQUE SCULPTURE
FORMATION OF THE
GERMANIC KINGDOMS
Romanesque sculpture features are located in the entrances and columns of the churches.
CATHEDRAL OF SANTIAGO DE COMPOSTELA
PLANES
IRENE DÍEZ
DAVID CAMPO
MARÍA LASA
INSIDE
INSIDE
OUTSIDE
OUTSIDE
Economy:
Main economic activity was agriculture. These large states were no worked by slaves but by land tenants; these were
peasants
who had given their land to lords in return for protection.
Society:
They had a
hierarchical structure
, at the top were the noblemen and the high clergy; and bellow, the rest of the populartion
They are composed in three naves
Central nave ends at an apse
Enormous DOME over pendentives
HOW TO RECOGNIS BYZANTINE ART
BYZANTINE ART
THE HISTORY OF THE BYZANTINE EMPIRE
THE END
PRESENTATION
SOCIETY AND ECONOMIC ATIVITIES
They were nomadic
Main characteristics:

- They are called
muslims
or
believers
- Their sacred book is the
'Koran'.
- They follow some
cultural practices.




THE INDEPENDENT EMIRATE(756-929)
In the beggining of the eight century Muslims
coquered most of the Iberian Peninsula.They called it Al-Andalus.
The conquest resulted in the destruction of the Visigothic Kingdom and the establishment of the independent Emirate of Cordoba under Abderraman I
ABDERRAMAN I
CHURCHES
MONASTERIES
He was the founder of a Muslim dinasty that ruled Iberia for three centuries(including the Caliphate of Cordoba)He was an Umayyad prince.
UNIVERSITIES
SCULPTURES
ARCHITECTURE
MOSAICS AND MINIATURES
Abderraman's establishment of a government in Al-Andalus represented a branching from the rest of the Islamic Empire,which had been brought under the Abbasid following of the Umayyads of Damascus in 750
Abderraman's establishment of a government in Al-Andalus represented a branching from the rest of the Islamic Empire,which had been brought under the Abbasid following of the Umayyads of Damascus in 750
He proclaimed himself an independent emir.Although the emirate was pollitically independent,the religious authority of the Abbasid caliphs in Baghdad.
THE CREATION OF A GREAT EMPIRE
TREATY OF VERDUN
The dissemination of the Islamic faith
A powerful, organised army
Wars with Al-Andalus
Desire for the benefits that come for a wa
The weakness of their opponents
Al-Andalus had to fight the Christians,who wanted the reconquest.A Visigothic leader known as Pelayo led a succesful uprising during the years 716 to 726.Later,the Christians reconquered Zamora.
The Franks,who had been attacked by the Muslims,
conquered most Cataluña(Girona and Barcelona) and establishd the Spanish March.They had to control the Muladi rebellion,Iberian Muslims who felt discriminated against
video
The arrabales were the houses of outside the city walls.They were usually inhabitated by poor people,when it grew so much they had to built a new wall to protec them.
The
germanic people
was a group who lived in the north of Europe, usually grouped by ascenty of each and to form tribes.

Is the part of outside,you can see it.
The decoration os their houses was minimal,
and the haven´t got any adornament on the outside and they had few windows to be cool and private.
Divison into PROVINCES
This is other image where we can see it better.
THE BEGINNING
OF ISLAM
In 711 Tarik, lieutenant of Musa, the Muslim gobernor in North Africa, crossed the Strait of Gibraltar with Arab and Berber troops.
Their intention was to plunder the area, but an easy victory over the King Roderick at the batle of Guadalete in 711 and Covadonga in 722

Muhammad denied polytheism and he considered all Mulims equal.
SIXTH CENTURY: Justinian tried to restored the Roman Empire
MIDDLE OF SEVENTH CENTURY: Byzantine Empire had been greatly reduced
As a consequence of his rejection, of polytheism, he and his followers had to escape to Yathrib in 662.
After the conquest Al-Andalus became an emirate: a province that depended the Umayyad caliphate of Damascus. The capital was Córdoba.
Muhammad gained more followers and became a spiritual and military leader and conquest Mecca in 630.He died two years later.
Like the
Alhambra

In four years they conquered most of the peninsula following the battle of Covadonga in 722 only a few small territories in the North remained Christian. It assured the independence of the Kingdom of Asturias, in the longer term, the survival of a Christian stronghold in northern Iberia.
Church had a very important role in society
ICONOCLASM
THE IMPORTANCE OF THE CHURCH
BATTLE OF GUADALETE
GEOGRAPHICAL SETTING
BATTLE OF COVADONGA
The Germans were
semi-nomadic
farmers living in villages but were constantly moving. The king controlled the warriors, he was the one who decided whether to give peace or declare war. Social classes became depending on how much money had each one.

The one that was the king was the most important person, after, the assembly of warriors and military chiefs, then, freemen, peasants, and finally the slaves, who were not entitled to do anything that wasn`t work. To assist the king in his work each kingdom was ruled by a count.
Art continued to suffer the crisis that had started in the last period of the Roman Empire. Artistic achievements were reduced mainly to gold work.
They also made art with metal and pecious stones.

Vikings: Lombards:
Visigoths: Vandals:
Fraks: Ostrogoths:
THE CONQUEST (711-722)
They had
two parts
public part
and private part
The
vizier
helped the caliph to govern, he was a kind of political advisor or minister.
EDUCATION
CALIPHAL ART
The palace of Medina Azahara:It is a huge palace city .
Made by Abderraman lll.
To become the capital of the caliphate.
THE STAGES OF THE CONQUEST
The Abbasid caliphate
education
The Umayyad caliphate
The Rashidun caliphate
In the battle of Guadalete in 711 at an unidentified location between the Christian Visigoths of Hispania under their king, Roderic, and an invading force of Muslim Arabs and Berbers under the Berber commander Ṭāriq ibn Ziyad. Encouraged them to advance further.
Territory was very large and it was divided into
provinces
The inhabitants paid two types of taxes.

One according to the lands they owned
The other was personal

SOCIETY
ECONOMY
HISPANIC-MUSLIM CULTURE
Al-Andalus became an important cultural centre during the times of Abderraman II and Alhaken II. Greek culture was brought from the eastern borders of the Muslim Empire.

EDUCATION
PALATINE SCHOOL
THE WAY OF ST.JAMES
SYMBOLS
ELEMENTARY
SUPERIOR
TRIVIUM
IN THAT TIME...
QUADRIVIUM
Pilgrimins went there for spiritual reasons and helped with the money situation.
They built with that money:
Bridges
Churches
Hospitals
Hostals
Who? Nobles' sons
For What? To form high officials for the Empire
Most Muslim conquerors were Berbers from North Africa, and a minority, Arabs, who owned large areas of land and occupied the highest positions in administration and the army.

The Hispanic-Visigothic population initially kept their religion and culture and they were called
Mozarabs.
Finally, they adopted Muslim religion and they were known as the
Muladi
.
Most important scholars that were born in Al-Andalus
Ibn Hazm
(historian, philosopher and poet)
Abulcasim Maslama
Astronomer
Abulcasis
Expert in medicine
Peacents
Serfs:
priviliged
Abderraman III proclaomed himself caliph in 929; leading politia and rligious independence fromthe caliph of baghdad.
Abderram III fought against Christiansin the north.
Period of greater splendour of AL-Andalus and Cordoba became more prosperous (capital was in the west), this continuated by Alhaken II and Hixen II. Almanzor real leader on Hixen II, and when Almanzor die caliphate became in crisis.

Horseshoe arches
Horseshoe barre vaults
Semicircular arches
Semicircular barrel vaults
Abderraman III proclaomed himself caliph in 929; leading politia and rligious independence fromthe caliph of baghdad.
THE CALIPHATE OF CÓRDOBA (929-1031)
1031 Governorsof provinces declaired independenceand they became into 28 different kingdoms, or taifas.
Goverment of AL-Andalus hanged from being an emirate to a caliphete. Emirs, had political control, they ruled over the army, the civil service, the leal system and ey administrated economy and justice.Rulers became caliphs, and also asumed the religious powers.

The territory was divided into provinces or koras. Ech one had political administrator( wali=administrator), and a judge(kadi=judge). Army made up of essentially mercenaries was very important to control the hole territory.
GOVERNMENT AND TERRITORIAL ORGANISATION
BY: NOAH TABOADA CECILIA LASSO & BOSCO GOGENOLA
THE FIRST GERMANIC
INVANSIONS OF
THE PENINSULA
The Suevi
The Alans
The Vandals
They estabilished a kingdom here:
The Visigothic kingdom of Tolouse
In 418, Honorius rewarded his Visigothic federates by giving themland in Gallia Aquitania on which to settle.
This settlement formed the nucleus of the future Visigothic kingdom.
The Visigoths settled as Roman allies in Gaul (France).
In 415 they came to the Peninsula from France, pushing out the Alans, the Vandals, who later settled in North Africa, and cornering the Suebi.
Only the Suebi were able to resist and founded their kingdom in Galicia and the north of Portugal.
• Little is known about the Suevi who crossed the Rhine. It is speculated that these Suevi are the same group as the Quadi.
free people:
The Vandal Kingdom was a kingdom established by the Germanic Vandals in North Africa and the Mediterranean from 435 to 534. They extended by conquest further into North Africa and the Mediterranean. The Kingdom was conquered by Byzantine Emperor Justinian in the Vandalic War.


The Alans were a group of Iranian origin. They were nomadic, in the 1st millennium AD derived from Scytho-Sarmatian.
CULTURE:
ART:
- Alaric tried to maintain the treaty that his father had concluded with the Franks.
- With the fall Western Roman Empire, the Visigoths established the kingdom of Toulouse.
- Territories --Pyrenees.
- 507 the Franks defeated them at the Battle of Vouillé
The Great Mosque of Codoba: It was built and then extended a number of times because the popullation kept growing. The first bilding dates from 785 under Abderraman I. During the times of Abderraman II and Alaken II and finally Almanzor in 987 new aditions were made to the original structure.
Government and territory

WHO WAS ABDERRAMAN I?
from the

Abbasids.
Abderraman came to the Peninsula escaping
The
reconquest
started

Santa Maria de Naranco
The first form of Pre-Romanesque in
Spain and Portugal was the Visigothic art, that brought the horse-shoe arches to the latter Al-Andalus Arab architecture and developed jewellery.
ELEVENTH CENTURY
STRATEGOS
ROMAN LAW
ORTHODOX CHRISTIAN CHURCH
CATHOLIC CHRISTIAN CHURCH
EAST-WEST SCHISM
CHURCH of the SAN VITALE
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