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Copy of Over Population in India and China
Transcript of Copy of Over Population in India and China
Origins of Overpopulation in India
2nd most populous country in the world with over 1.21 billion people (2011 census)
-Projected to be the world’s most populous country in 2025
-In 1901, India’s population was 238.4 million, in 2011: increased by more than 4 times to 1.21 billion
1990’s: deceleration in decline in infant mortality rate
1947: India became independent from British rule- average life expectancy was 33 years
*After that, living conditions improved, as health care, improved living standards have raised the number to mid 60’s
Often it is the poorest families that have the most children (may be attributed to lack of education on the issue of sex, contraception) etc.
For a poor family, having many children means that many hands will help to work and bring money in for the family. Implications of Overpopulation
-1) Pressure on food, clothing & housing :basic needs of human life.
2) Unemployment: The overpopulation aggravates the unemployment & disguised unemployment problem.
3) Standard of living: The overpopulation creates or give rise to large families with low income reducing the standard of persons living therein.
4) Decrease of forest area: The basic need of the growing population is of residence and shelter.
5) Environmental pollution
6) Education : The low income of large family does not afford to provide education to their children.
7) Energy crisis : greater demand for already deficient energy (fuel wood, fossil fuel and electricity).
8) Hygienic conditions Origins of Overpopulation in China
- China’s population started to increase dramatically after World War II.
- Thought the population increase would bring money to the country and help China produce more food, build a better army, develop water control, and establish communication systems .
-Large rural population with poor access to education and also to contraception.
- Birth rates are higher where life expectancy is low and infant mortality is high.
- China went through a series of fertility rate increases and decreases. Implications of Overpopulation
• Chinese people are paying for the country's heavy pollution with their health
• 10% of farm land can now not be used due to the pollution
• Since there are so many children to begin with alot of them do not go to school and recieve a education.
Lack of Space:
• Approximately 126 people live on each square kilometer of China’s territory.
Amount of people:
• With such a vast amount of people, China faces its greatest challenge of reducing unemployment Solutions for the Overpopulation in China
- “One-child per family policy” – started in 1979. (states citizens must obtain a birth certificate before birth of their children. Citizens offered special benefits if they agreed to have one child… ( cash bonuses, longer maternity leave, better child care, preferential housing assignemnts)
- Families who did have more than one child would either be taxed up to 50% of their income or punished by loss of employment or other benefits.
- Unplanned pregnancies or pregnancies without proper permission would need to be ended.
- Forced abortions and infanticide (of females) result as males are much more desirable
- According to World Bank and World Health Organization, approximately 500 women committed suicide a day in China in 2009 (denied number of children women could bear)
- 1970’s: mobilized birth control program in place
- Forced abortions and infanticide (of females) result