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Disorders in Children and Adolescents: Abnormal Psychology

An insight into the world of mood disorders and learning/attention disorders in children and adolescents.
by

Sarah Patterson

on 5 November 2012

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Transcript of Disorders in Children and Adolescents: Abnormal Psychology

Disorders in Children and Adolescents Children and Adolescents (cc) photo by theaucitron on Flickr Sarah Patterson
Bianca Urias
Elizabeth Stoscup PSY266 Diagnose In children, the top diagnoses in the ages of
6-17 are learning disabilities and ADHD. diabetes, AIDS, and leukemia More children suffer from
mental disorders than from
combined. Yet 60-80% fail to get
the treatment they need. The children with internalized problems (anxiety, depression) are at higher risk of going untreated than children with externalized problems. Risk Factors Genetics (parents who suffer from depression, anxiety, etc)
Environmental stressors, family factors
Neglect, physical/sexual abuse, harsh discipline These children may have difficulty forming healthy relationships and attachments.
Lower self-esteem, bed-wetting, thumb-sucking, suicide attempts, depression.
Extent into adulthood. "Kill small animals, set fire, watch it all burn, beat him up, make him cry, make him feel like he wants to die. Repeat." Label? Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD's ) Autism & Asperger's Disorder "Different but not less." -Temple Grandin A child with autism does not use normal facial expressions, or often does not make eye contact. Their eyes may seem glazed over. They don't develop relationships with their peers. They do not express pleasure in the emotion of others.
They may not talk.
Repetition, patterns habits, favorites, comforts, preoccupation. Rebecca Bananas
Poptarts
Spinning
Grandma and Papa's House
Her own world
Baby dolls
Watching videos over and over Lifelong. Alone. Sameness. Hunter Hunter never smiles. But, he smiles
when he's with me. Asperger's
Syndrome Rett's Disorder (Slowing of head growth, loss of motor skills, hand movements, poor gait/movement, deficit in language.)
Childhood Disintegrative Disorder (normal for 2 years, loss of skills, slowed behavior) Mental Retardation And this is what you
don't. This is what you think you see. "When one door of happiness closes, another opens; but often, we look so long at the closed door that we do not see the one which has been opened for us." -Helen Keller Mental retardation is the broad-range of
impairments in cognitive and social
functioning.
Improvement occurs if care is given.
Those left alone may deteriorate.
Low IQ
Impaired functioning vs average
Development of disorder before 18 How did it happen?
Chromosomal or genetic (Down syndrome)
Infectious disease
Problems during pregnancy Mild Moderate Severe Profound The Chart of Severity Prenatal Factors Does the mother use? Does the mother abuse? Or does she have
no say in the matter? (Rubella- German measles) Effects on the fetus.
Alcohol. Drugs. Oxygen deprivation. Brain infections. Ingestion of toxins. Cultural-Familial Causes Mild ranges of severity...
these children have a
lack of stimulation
in the home life.
No toys, books,
interaction, language
skills.
When exposed to
learning experience,
they may respond
dramatically, or
not at all. Down Syndrome In these children, there is a 47th
chromosome. 1/800 births. Round face, flat nose, small and slanted eyes, protruding tongue, small squarish hands and short fingers, curved fifth finger, small arms and legs.
Mental retardation, malformations of the heart, breathing difficulties.
Average life expectancy of 49 years. Special needs children don't often live very long. Learning Disorders Mathematics Disorder: Deficiency in arithmetic skills. Dyslexia Difficulty in reading Disorder of Written Expression Extremely deficient in writing skills. Errors in spelling,
punctuation, and grammar- difficulty in making sentences
and paragraphs. Reading Disorder (Dyslexia) - cannot recognize words
or comprehend text. Read slowly,
distort words or omit them when
reading. Read letters backwards
or upside down. Varies with language. Higher
in English-speaking and
French-speaking countries. Communication Disorders Persistent difficulties in using or comprehending language. Expressive language
disorder: the child is not able to use the language. Mixed receptive/expressive language disorder: difficulty in understanding and producing speech. Cannot use large words, spatial terms, or different sentence types. Phonological disorder: cannot articulate sounds and may mispronounce or omit things. Speech therapy may be used. Stuttering: children cannot speak fluently. To diagnose, it must be inappropriate to their age. Physical tension, stress, blocks of speech, interjections, broken words, etc Controversy 20 million children are being prescribed
psychiatric drugs

Every 8 hours a baby is born with birth defects due to drugs.

Every week a child goes into a coma because of them.

Every month four children die from side effects.

Every week a child commits suicide attributed to drugs.

12 international drug regulatory agencies have
issued warning ons stimulants like Ritalin causing:
addiction, depression, insomnia, mania, psychosis, heart problems, stroke, & sudden death. hallucinations, hostility, violence, aggression, homicidal ideation, suicide. 172 drug regulatory warnings and studies have been issued on antidepressants including: Drug agencies warn antipsychotic drugs can cause death, yet they are prescribed to toddlers. Bipolar Disorder Bipolar is a chronic disorder affecting up to 1% of the general population.
Up to 20% of adults with bipolar disorder have experienced initial symptoms before the age of 19.
The number of prepubescent children with BPD is small. Diagnosing adolescents and children with BPD is hard, due to many of the symptoms overlapping with other disorders. Manic Specific
Symptoms in Children Elation
Grandiose behaviors
Flight of ideas
Decreased need to sleep
Hypersexuality Assessment Tools Parent version of the Young Mania Rating Scale (P-YMRS)
Mood diary
General Behavior Inventory (GBI) Treatment Plan Medication and monitoring side effects
Closely monitoring symptoms
Education about the illness for parent and child
Psychotherapy for child and family
Treatment of coexisting disorders
Accomodations at school
Stress reduction
Good nutrition and exercise
Adherence to a regular sleeping schedule and constant routine Medication Depakote
Olanzapine
Lithium
Risperdal
Abilify
Lamotrigine Zyprexa
Seroquel
Geodon
Prozac
Paxil
Zoloft Bipolar
Disorder ADD/ADHD Inattention Impulsivity Attention Deficit Disorder is a biologically based condition causing a persistent pattern of difficulties resulting in one or more of the following behaviors: Inattention, hyperactivity,
impulsivity. (ADHD is the addition of excessive
hyperactivity.) Hyperactivity Causes: Hereditary
Changes in brain function
Diet Statistics ADHD affects 3-7% of children in the US.
In 2004, nearly 4 million children under the age of 18 have been diagnosed with ADHD.
Boys are 3 times more likely to be diagnosed than girls.
ADHD is usually first diagnosed during elementary school, although signs of hyperactivity are often observed earlier, many overactive toddlers do not go on to develop the disorder. Signs & Symptoms Disorganized
Hyperactivity
Constant motion
Restlessness
Excessive talking
Impatience Emotional Deregulation Minimal brain dysfunction or abnormal cerebral structures affect people so that they may experience periods of explosive rage that can lead to violent episodes. Emotional irregularity of ADHD could come from coexisting conditions such as: Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and Conduct disorder
Mood disorders
Anxiety
Learning disabilities ADD/ADHD Kathleen Nadeu explains in "Adventures in Fast Forward":

"In actuality, ADD is not a 'deficit of attention, but a disorder in which individuals have much less control over their responses to stimuli." Treatments Behavioral Management
Counseling
Medications Depression Children can suffer from diagnosable mood disorders including major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder.
About 3 million adolescents suffer from major depression. Feelings of hopelessness. Distorted thinking patterns & tendencies to blame themselves for negative events. Lower self-esteem, self-confidence, and perceptions of confidence. Sadness.
Crying.
Fatigue.
Appetite.
Sleep.
Suicidal.
Children may feel upset, but won't be able to recognize
it as depression. There may be aggressive or sexual
acting.
Lack of academic, athletic, and social skills.
Keeping problems to themselves.
An episode of depression may last a year.
If a child experiences depression,
there is a good chance they will
develop Bipolar Disorder later on in life. Other associated disorders may include: conduct disorders, eating disorders, and anxiety disorders. Distorted thinking patterns- the way you think may deeply affect how you are feeling.
Examples of distorted thinking:
Pessimism
Catastrophizing
Assuming personal responsibility for negative outcomes
Focusing on negative aspects Conduct Disorder (CD)
and Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) Children purposefully behave antisocially.
Internally aggressive and cruel.
Do not experience guilt or remorse, steal and destroy property, commit rape, armed robbery, homicide, cheat in school/don't attend. Substance abuse and sexual activity.
In ODD, leads to antisocial behavior.
Negative
Oppositional
Defy authority
The causes may lie in ineffective parenting- lack of consistency in the parents.
Anger problems & aggressive behavior. Thank you.
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