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Gas Chromatography

Ahmad Yousry Muhmmad
by

Ahmad Yousry

on 11 May 2016

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Transcript of Gas Chromatography

Gas Chromatography
Gas Chromatography
Outline:

1- Introduction.
2- The GC Components.
3- GC Analysis Cycle.
4- GC Advantages.
5- GC Limitations.

Sumbitted by:

1. Ahmad Yousry Muhm-mad
2. Muhammad Salem Hamed
3. Hazem Mohamed Aly
4. Ameer Anass Muhammad
5. Khaled Abdalnasser Mahmoud

Submitted to: Dr. Shakinaz El-sherbiny
GC Analysls Cycle
1- Sample preparation.
2- Injection.
3- Column separation.
4- Detection.
5- Data analysis.

Advantages
1. High resolution.
2. High speed.
3. High sensitivity.
4. High accuracy.
5. Easy, Well-known.
Introduction
Sample preparation
It’s often the most time consuming step. Before beginning the separation, the operator must set the flow rate of the carrier gases and the temperature of the oven. The temperature of the inlet port is also set in a level that ensures the sample is fully vaporized and the detector must be lit.
Injection
It involves rapid vaporization of the sample with mixing with the carrier gas to be introduced to the column. Most commonly, liquids are analyzed by injecting them into the heated GC column through the injection port using
(5 to10) μl

syringe. Gas can be injected using gas sampling valve. Solids can be analyzed by extracting chemicals that are in the solid with a liquid solvent;
(Think of making coffee)
.
Function.
Where it's used.
1- Carrier gas.
2- Injection port.
3- The column.
4- The detector.
5- Data system.

The main components
Carrier Gas
Injection Port
The Column
The Detector
The detector detects each component of the mixture as
it comes out of the column and also measures its amount. There are many types of detectors, each type of detectors responds differently to compounds.

Examples:
1-
FID
:
detects all organic compounds.
2-

NPD
: detects nitrogen and phosphorus compounds.
Data System
Column separation
When the components of the mixture are carried through the column in the mobile phase, the more volatile the component and the less it interacts with the stationary phase, the faster it travels through the column.
Detection
After the separation of the components, they’re individually measured in the GC detector that converts some chemical or physical properties into electrical signals to by analyzed using a PC data system.
Data analysis (Chr matogram)
Limitations
Samples must be volatile, as it’s limited to be vaporized in the oven temperature limits.
“Dirty” samples require a clean up to avoid blocking or destroying the column.
We must use another instrument
(e.g. Mass Spectrophotometer)
for confirmation of identity.
Some experience is necessary to obtain good results.
Horses race.
How to separate;
*

Sand, Salt and iron fillings. * Methanol and Methyl Benzene.
Preferred to be inert or very stable to avoid any reaction with mixture sample or the stationary phase in the column.
From a pressure rise cylinder
* The port from where the sample enters the
GC
Sample vaporization.
* The Heart of the
GC
Temperature-controlled oven.
Stationary phase.
Spiral shape.
*A computer station used to visualize the qualitative and quantitative analysis.
Retention time (RT)
Qualitative analysis.
Quantitative analysis.
Full transcript