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United States Immigration Policy
Transcript of United States Immigration Policy
2 year residency requirement to become U.S. citizen 1819 Reporting rule adopted
Data collected on immigration
Ships' captains required to keep and submit data 1875 1882 1885 1891 1892 1903 1907 1917 1921 1924 1927 1929 1948 1952 1965 1978 1980 1986 1990 1996 First exclusionary act
Convicts, prostitutes, & "coolies" Immigration Act of 1882
The legislation denied entry to “convicts, lunatics, idiots and person likely to become public charges.
Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882
First U.S. policy that directly restricts immigrants by race or ethnicity. Alien Contract Labor Act
Prohibits importation of contract labor
The legislation aimed to protect domestic labor forces from competition Office of Immigration created
After Civil War, states began passing individual immigration legislations.
1875 - U.S. Supreme Court ruled immigration as a federal responsibility
Responsible for admitting, rejecting, and processing all immigrants seeking admission to the United States and for implementing national immigration policy Ellis Island opens
Between 1892-1953, more than 12 million immigrants are processed at this facility Additional categories of persons excluded
Epileptics, professional beggars, and anarchists
Expands Immigration Act of 1882 - Partly in reaction to the Haymarket Square Bombings which were led by anarchists Exclusions broadened
Imbeciles, the feeble-minded, tuberculars, persons with physical or mental defects, & anyone under 16 without parents "Gentleman's Agreement"
United States promises not to ban Japanese immigration in exchange for Japan’s pledge not to issue passports to Japanese laborers for travel to the continental United States Literacy Test introduced
Congress enacts a literacy requirement for all new immigrants: ability to read 40 words in some language.
Most significant in limiting the flow of newcomers, it designates Asia as a “barred zone” (excepting Japan and the Philippines) from which immigration will be prohibited. Quota Act
Immigration ceiling is set at 350,000/yr
Quota is set so that admissions of 3% of each nationality group's representation in the 1910 census
Restrict flow of eastern and southern European immigrants National Origins Act
Reduced annual immigration to 165,000
Revised quota to 2% of each nationality from the 1890 census
U.S. Border Patrol is created Immigration ceiling further reduced
Reduced to 150,000/year
Quota revised to 2% in the 1920 census National Origins Act
150,000/yr. ceiling is made permanent
70% of admissions slated for northern & western Europeans
30% for southern and eastern Europeans Displaced Persons Act
Entry allowed for 400,000 persons displace by WWII
Security check, proof of employment and housing that doesn't threaten U.S. citizens' jobs & homes McCarran-Walter Act
Removes race as a basis for exclusion
Act introduces an ideological criterion for admission: immigrants and visitors to the U.S. can new be denied entry on the basis of their political ideology
The main purpose was to ward off any threat of communism to U.S. democracy after WWII
Naturalization now requires ability to read and write, as well as speak and understand, English It is extremely important to remember that the first immigrants to the Americas were European settlers and colonists... Native Americans had inhabited the continent for thousands of years until the European explorers began introducing disease and savagery towards the native population The First Natives Immigration Act is amended
Eliminates racial criteria from its immigration laws
Eastern Hemisphere - 170,000 ceiling
Western Hemisphere - 120,000 ceiling World-wide immigration ceiling introduced
New annual immigration ceiling 290,000 Refugee Act
System is developed to handle refugees as a class separate from other immigrants
Defined as those who flee a country because of persecution “on account of race, religion, nationality or political opinion.”
The president also is allowed to admit anygroup of refugees in an emergency Immigration Reform & Control Act
Immigration ceiling is raised to 540,000
Amnesty granted to illegal aliens already in the U.S.
Increased border enforcement
Stiff sanctions on employers of illegal aliens Immigration Act of 1990
Increased legal immigration ceilings to 700,000
Tripled the number of visas for priority workers and professionals with U.S. job offers
People can no longer be denied admittance on the basis of their beliefs, statements, or associations Illegal Immigration Act
Phone verification for worker authentication by employers.
Access to welfare benefits more difficult for legal aliens.
Increased border enforcement. 2010 2011 2001-2012 DREAM Act Proposal
Conditional permanent residency to certain undocumented residents of good moral character who graduate from U.S. high schools
Arrived in the United States as minors
Lived in the country continuously for at least five years prior to the bill's enactment
If they were to complete two years in the military or two years at a four-year institution of higher learning, they would obtain temporary residency for a six-year period Arizona SB 1070
“Show me your papers,” which requires police officers to check the immigration status of anyone whom they arrest or detain and allows them to stop and arrest someone if they believe that he is an undocumented immigrant
Makes it a crime to be in Arizona without valid immigration papers
Crime to apply for or hold a job without proper immigration papers
Allows a police officer to arrest someone, without a warrant, if the officer believes that he has committed – at some point in time – a crime that could cause him to be deported Alabama Immigration Law HB 56
Authorities can question people suspected of being in the country illegally and hold them without bond
Officials can check the immigration status of students in public schools
An unauthorized immigrant would have no legal recourse if his employer refused to pay him for work performed.
An unauthorized immigrant who hires a lawyer would have no recourse if the lawyer runs off with the money.
An unauthorized immigrant renting an apartment would have no legal recourse if the landlord unilaterally withdraws the lease or fails to meet health and safety standards. Who were they?
How did they live? Puritans The Puritans were an English religious group who came to the United States to practice their religion without interference from the Church of England. The Puritans were pilgrims, but not all pilgrims were Puritans. Most Puritans settled in towns in coastal Massachusetts just slightly north of Boston.
The Puritans had their own unique community and cultural practices, most of them based on their religious beliefs. It is important for us to understand the Puritan customs and culture before we can begin reading The Scarlet Letter, which takes place in one of these Puritan communities. PURITAN LIFE AND RELIGION Puritans, sometimes called Separatists, are those who reject the organized denominations' claims of authority. Church of England Separatists made up one small group, which began breaking away as early as the 16th Century. By far the largest group of Puritans came out of the Presbyterian Church, while the second largest group came from the Baptists.
In a time when hatred and persecution existed between many denominations, every denomination in Europe hated and persecuted the Puritans. One small group after another boarded ships and came to America. In the 18th Century, following the teaching of the English philosopher John Locke, emerges the influence of a group known as Puritans. John Locke's influential books include: "A Letter Concerning Toleration", "Two Treatises of Government", "Essay on Human Understanding", and "The Reasonableness of Christianity". Puritans rejected the rituals and extravagant buildings of the major denominations in Europe. Puritans emphasized individual conscience before God, and rejected the dogmas of organized religion. The Puritan Way The Puritan Way Preparations for the Sabbath began the day before. All of the food had to be cooked and clothes ready. No labor, not even sewing, could be done on the Sabbath.
The Sabbath began at sundown the night before, and the evening was spent in prayer and Bible study. Religion played an important role in Puritan life. The Puritans felt that they were chosen by God for a special purpose and that they must live every moment in a God-fearing manner. Every man, woman, and child was expected to attend the meeting on the Sabbath without question. Puritans were required to read the Bible which showed their religious discipline. If they did not read the Bible, it was thought that they were worshiping the devil.