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US Constitution through President Jackson 1787-1836

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Clint Kovach

on 15 March 2018

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Transcript of US Constitution through President Jackson 1787-1836

John Adams 1797-1801
James Madison 1809-1817
Thomas Jefferson 1801-1809
George Washington 1789-1797
Many people started calling for a stronger central government to help fix state issues and protect peoples lives and property (after Shay's Rebellion)
1787 Constitutional Convention – called by James Madison to discuss taxation and trade
55 delegates met in Philadelphia to balance states rights and create a stronger government (Washington was presiding officer)
2 plans were put forth: Virginia Plan and New Jersey Plan

Scrap the Articles of Confederation
Congress split into 2 Houses (# of representatives reflects state population in both houses)
Create executive, judicial, and legislative branches
Wanted a new government that could raise money through taxes and make laws binding upon the states

Virginia Plan

Wanted to make the Articles of Confederation central government stronger
1 House where each state has equal representation
The House has the power to tax and regulate trade
The delegation voted to go with the Virginia Plan and began work on a new Constitution

New Jersey Plan

A group of undecided delegates under Ben Franklin created a solution
2 Houses in Congress:
House of Representatives where size is according to population (1 person for every 40,000) and the Senate where each state has equal amount (2 for each state)
3/5 Compromise
– every 5 enslaved people in a state count as 3 free persons for representation and taxing purposes

Great Compromise
Popular sovereignty
– rule by people in an area
– divided govt. power between federal (national), and state governments
Separation of Powers
– created the judicial (Supreme Court), executive (President), and legislative (Congress)
Checks and Balances
– each branch of the government has the ability to limit the power of the other branches
– formal accusation of misconduct
Checks and Balances

– change to the Constitution, can be proposed by 2/3 vote in Congress, and ratified by 3/4 vote of the state legislatures
– supporters of the Constitution, mostly large land owners, merchants, and artisans living in large coastal cities

– opponents of the Constitution, mostly western farmers and people living inland (suspicious of the rich), were concerned with state governments

Federalist Papers
–arguments for the Constitution written by James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, and John Jay
Federalist promised a Bill of Rights and by 1790 all 13 states signed the Constitution
1789 Washington was chosen to be 1st president
Bill of Rights – the 1st 10 amendments to the Constitution

Federal Hall / Washington (NYC)
1789 Congress created the
Departments of State (Jefferson), Treasury (Hamilton), War (Henry Knox), and Attorney General (Edmund Randolph)
These men became known as Washington’s cabinet (gave frequent advice)
Judiciary Act of 1789 – created 13 district courts, 3 courts of appeal, and a Supreme Court (Washington chose the federal judges) (John Jay – 1st chief justice)

Tariff of 1789 – importers had to pay 8% of the value of cargo
Southerners distrusted the government
Bonds – paper notes promising to repay money after the Revolutionary War
The bonds lost value and people sold them to speculators (people willing to take a risk)
Hamilton’s plan called for the bonds to paid in full ($40 mil to citizens-$11 mil to France)
Southerners were upset because the North owned most of the bonds and Southern excise tax was going to pay off the bonds
Alexander Hamilton believed the US needed to accept debt at full value and created a financial plan
Hamilton’s Financial Plan
To get Hamilton’s Plan passed in Congress an agreement was made to move the capital from New York to the south (District of Columbia)
National Bank – Hamilton wanted it to manage debt, issue paper money, collect taxes, and regulate trade
Enumerated Powers
– specifically mentioned in the Constitution
Implied Powers
– NOT mentioned in the Constitution, but necessary

Bank of the United States
Federalist (Hamilton)- favored strong national govt., power in the hands of the rich, able, and well born, manufacturing and trade were the basis of wealth and power (urban north and east)
Republicans (Jefferson/Madison) – believed the strength of the country lie with the farmers (agrarianism), the wealthy would corrupt the govt., stood for states rights against the power of the federal govt. (rural south and west)
Rise of Political Parties
1793 – The French declared war on England
According to a 1778 Treaty the US was obligated to assist France
1793 Washington issued a proclamation stating the US to be
“friendly and impartial”
Jay’s Treaty – allowed British ships to search US cargo going to France and gave England the most favored nation status (75% of exports/90%imports)
Republicans – pro-France / Federalist – pro English
Washington’s Foreign Policy
Pinckney's Treaty – negotiated with Spain, it gave the US the right to navigate the Mississippi River and use of New Orleans
Treaty of Greenville – after a loss in the Battle of Fallen Timbers, 12 Indian tribes agreed to give up Ohio, Indiana, and Detroit for $10,000 per year and the right to hunt


Washington's Farewell Address – warned against sectionalism of North and South and forming alliances w/ foreign nations (Europe)
Excise Tax - 7 cents per gallon on whiskey
Whiskey Rebellion 1794
- Penn. farmers were upset about the tax (whiskey used as money)
Washington sent militia but rebellion ended without confrontation. (showed the strength of the new govt.)
Adams edged out Jefferson 71-68 (Jefferson became VP / Hamilton resigned as Treasury Secretary
XYZ Affair - 3 US diplomats were sent to negotiate with the French F.M. Talleyrand.
The envoy is approached by 3 French middlemen (referred to as X, Y, and Z by John Marshall upon his return) and told the price of talking to Talleyrand is $250,000
Quasi-War w/ France – an undeclared war between the US and France in 1798
Department of Navy created to expand the 3 ship navy and Marine Corps was re-established to organize 10,000 soldiers (Washington put in Command)
Alien Laws
– immigrants must wait 14 yrs to become citizens, the president could deport any “dangerous” alien in time of peace and imprison in time of war
Sedition Laws
- it became illegal to print or utter anything malicious against the federal government or the president (held liable with fines or imprisonment)
Jefferson ran for President against Adams with Aaron Burr running as Jefferson’s VP
Each voter (electoral college) voted for 2 people (1 for Pres / 1 for VP)
To avoid a tie one Republican was suppose to refrain from voting (but there was a tie 73-73)
The Federalist controlled House of Reps would vote for the president between Jefferson and Burr
Hamilton convinced Federalist to go with Jefferson over Burr
Jefferson thought Washington/Adams acted like royalty, he wanted a small government; began paying off debt and disband the army
Judiciary Act of 1801-added 16 new federal judges(“midnight judges"appointed by Adams)
Marbury v. Madison – in a ruling by Chief Justice John Marshall, the Supreme Court asserted the right of Judicial Review – the power to decide whether laws were constitutional
Louisiana Purchase 1803 – more than doubled the size of the US for $15 million
Lewis and Clark Expedition – 1804-1806 to explore a passage on the Missouri River to the Pacific (Sacagawea – Shoshone interpreter), led to a claim of Oregon
Pike Expedition – 1805-1806 to explore the upper Mississippi, took the Arkansas River to Colorado (Pike’s Peak) and the Rio Grande, detailed the Great Plains and Rockies

Louisiana Purchase

– legalized form of kidnapping that forced people into military service
Embargo Act of 1807

– a governmental ban on trade with Europe (hurt the US more than Europe)
Despite hatred for the Embargo Act the election of 1808 was won by another Republican: James Madison over Federalist Thomas Pinckney
Federalist devised a plan to take New England out of the Union persuading VP Aaron Burr to run for Governor of New York in 1804
Hamilton trashed Burr as “dangerous and not to be trusted”
Burr challenged Hamilton to a duel – Hamilton refused to fire/Burr killed him
1807 Burr was accused of treason in a plot to create a new western US but was not guilty
Hamilton v. Burr
War of 1812
Alexander Hamilton’s Grave
James Monroe 1817-1825
Non-Intercourse Act
– forbid trade with France or England, but was OK for the rest of Europe
War Hawks – Henry Clay (Kentucky) and John C. Calhoun (SC) gave 2 reasons for war with England
1.British trade restrictions hurt southern/western farmers
2. British were arming Native Americans to attack western settlers

Domestic Pressure
Tecumseh – Shawnee Indian, believed the Indians needed to unite to protect their land
William Henry Harrison – governor of Indiana territory moved to crush Tecumseh
Battle of Tippecanoe – Harrison’s troops met Tenskwatawa (“the Prophet”) in a bloody battle; most Indians fled to Canada in defeat
1812 Madison pressured Congress to declare war (Army-7,000 troops / Navy-16 boats)

Invasion of Canada / Beginning of War of 1812
War coming to an end?
Failure in the North
1814 – the British march into Washington DC and burn down the Capital and White House
Star Spangled Banner written by F.S. Key during the bombardment of Baltimore's Ft McHenry (British abandoned their attack next day)
Hartford Convention – Federalist in New England wanted to secede from the Union
Success in the South
Battle of Horseshoe Bend 1814
- Andrew Jackson defeated the last Creek holdouts in Alabama

Battle of New Orleans (Jan.1815)
– Gen. Jackson used cotton bales to defend New Orleans and defeat and advancing British force of 7,000 (13 to 300 dead)
Treaty of Ghent (Dec.1814) –
ended the war putting everything back to pre-war boundaries
Consequences of War
Nationalism – pride in one's country
Federalist were seen as unpatriotic and the party cease to exist after a couple of years
1818 – 49th parallel: northern US border
End of the War of 1812
The US had no National bank to loan money but Madison ordered the invasion of Canada
3 US attacks at Detroit, Niagara Falls, and along the Hudson River into Montreal all failed
US troops refused to cross the border
1813 Oliver Perry constructed a fleet along Lake Erie and defeated the British navy in the Great Lakes
1. Provided Funds for National
Defense (Army and Navy)
2. Created a standing army and gave
federal control to the militia
3. Federal Aid for road and canal

Henry Clay’s American System
Aftermath of the War
There was national political harmony since only 1 party had power (Republicans) - nicknamed the
"Era of Good Feeling"
2nd Bank of the US
– proposed by Clay, Calhoun, and Webster, the bank would issue a national currency and control state banks
Protective Tariff
– designed to protect American manufacturing by taxing imports
Clay's American System
- Private, state, and local governments began funding canal and road construction (creation of an American infrastructure)
McCulloch vs. Maryland 1819 - ruled the national bank was constitutional

Gibbons vs. Ogden 1824 – ruled 1. anything that crossed state boundaries came under federal control, 2. states can not regulate interstate commerce because of a need for national uniformity, 3. state can not grant exclusive rights for use of state waterways
Seminole (“runaway or separatist”) Indians were raiding farmers on the FL/GA border
Sec of War Calhoun sent Gen. Jackson into Florida to attack Seminole villages (1st Seminole war - 1815 Jackson victory)
Jackson seized Pensacola and removed the Spanish governor; also killed 2 British agents
Adams-Onis Treaty 1819
– ceded Florida to the US and finalized the border of Louisiana
Monroe Doctrine – “the American continents are henceforth not to be considered as subjects for future colonization by any European powers”
Early 19th Century Inventions
1821 – 4,000 miles of toll roads were completed
1825 - the
Erie Canal
was completed
1825 – Letter carriers began delivering mail to houses (mail boxes)
Conflict with Spanish Florida
Manufacturing shifted from hand tools to complex machines / Home based work shifted to factories
(Lowell Girls)
Samuel Morse

invented the telegraph
1844 (Morse code) used for long distance communication
Railroads opened up the west to trade from eastern goods (Chicago)
“wage slavery” – nickname the south gave to northern work force since women and children worked in the factories
Missouri Compromise 1819
The US consisted of 11 slave/11 free states
Missouri applied for statehood 1819
Missouri Compromise – Missouri (slave) and Maine (free) are added as states and no land north of Missouri’s southern border (36N) could be slave (Mason-Dixon Line 39N)
Missouri passed a law that said no new slaves could enter the state
Election of 1824
Mudslinging – candidates criticize each other personalities and morals
Jackson presented himself as a man of the people and used the “corrupt bargain” against Adams
Jackson (“Old Hickory”) won a land slide victory (won most of the votes in the west and south)
Election of 1828
“Corrupt Bargain” – upon Adams election he chose Henry Clay as Secretary of State
Pro-Jackson supporters changed the party name to Democratic-Republicans (Democrats)
Adams plans to build universities, highways, and astronomical observatories w/ tax payers dollars, but was seen as a Federalist (like his father) and received little support

John Quincy Adams 1825-1829
4 men, all Republicans, ran for president
(Tennessee) (WEST)
John Quincy Adams
(Mass.) (NORTH)
William Crawford
(Georgia) (SOUTH)
Jackson won the popular vote, by 40,000 but no one had a majority in the electoral
The vote went to the HOR (Clay SOTH)
Clay put his vote behind Adams who was elected (Jackson was Clay’s regional enemy)
Industrialization of America Begins
Industrialization in America
States eliminated voting restrictions allowing all white males to vote
Jackson believed the majority should rule, ordinary citizens play an expanded role
Spoils System – appointing people to govt. positions on basis of party and loyalty
Jackson was 1st to fire govt. employees (Presidential Cabinet) so his followers could be appointed
Tariff of Abominations (1828) – a protective tariff with the goal of protecting industries in the northern United States; the South, had to pay higher prices on finished goods
South Carolina threatens to secede (withdraw) from the union

Andrew Jackson 1829-1837
Nullification – a state's right to declare a federal law null since the states created the federal union

(VP Calhoun supports)
South Carolina votes for nullification of both the Tariff of 1828 and 1832
Force Bill – the president has the use of the military to enforce acts of Congress
Nullification Crisis
Indian Removal Act 1830 – Indians in FL and GA had to relocate to the Great Plains (thought to be wasteland)
Worcester vs. GA 1832 – Cherokee Indians sued GA, CJ Marshall ordered state officials to honor Cherokee property rights
Jackson refused to support the decision and stated, “Marshall has made his opinion, now let him enforce it”
Trail of Tears 1838 – Pres. Van Buren sent the army to march the remaining Cherokees to Oklahoma (6,000 died)

Jackson vs. Native Americans
McCulloch vs. Maryland 1819, which made the bank constitutional
through implied powers, Jackson felt he did not need to listen to the Supreme Court
Jackson vetoed a bill in 1832 that would extend the Bank for 20 years
Jackson removed Federal deposits and placed them in state banks destroying the National Bank
Jackson had support of the people but critics blame him for future financial issues (Panic of 1837)
Jackson vs. The Bank
Kentucky (Jefferson) and Virginia (Madison) Resolutions
passed by state legislatures in response to the Alien and Sedition Acts of 1798.
The resolutions argued that the federal government had no authority to exercise power not specifically delegated to it in the Constitution.
Virginia Resolution (Madison)
, said Congress was exercising “
a power not delegated by the Constitution
, but on the contrary, expressly and positively forbidden by one of the amendments.
Kentucky Resolutions ( Jefferson)
, went further, asserting that
states had the power to nullify unconstitutional federal laws
Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions
2nd Great Awakneing
People's own actions will determine their salvation (movement away from predestination)
- huge outdoor religious meetings trying to convert "sinners" and reform people's lives
Increased activity in religion and social democracy led to more social reforms
- organized to end alcohol abuse
Prison Reform
- sought to rehabilitate criminals, stop putting debters and mentally ill in jail (Dorthea Dix)
- create public schools (Horace Mann)
Battle of Lake Champlain – the US navy defeated the British who retreated to Montreal
By the end of 1813 the US still had not conquered any Canadian land and had lost Detroit
Industrialization led thousands of people to move to cities looking for work
Conditions and wages were poor leading to labor
unions (workers joining together)
strikes (or work stoppages)
Even with Industrialization, agriculture remained the country's leading economic activity
Lowell Mill Girls
textile factories in Massachusetts where women worked and lived in the same area

Eli Whitney
– invented
Interchangeable Parts (1801)
– machines made large quantities of identical pieces that workers assembled; also the
Cotton Gin (1807)
which removed the seeds from cotton
Early 19th Century Inventions
Robert Fulton
invented the
Steamboat (1807)
(known as the Clermont), traveled between NYC and Albany, New York (150 mile trip in 32 hours)
In the early 1800s Cotton production grew 10 times what it was during Washington's presidency (thanks cotton gin)
The price of slaves increased 10-20 times after 1808
Slave codes - "a slave by our code is not treated as a person, but a thing"
Nat Turner - led a slave revolt in 1831 Virginia, in which he killed 60 whites before being executed
Slavery in the South
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