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Jonas Gottvall Design Science Canvas
Transcript of Jonas Gottvall Design Science Canvas
Motivate the problem! Explain why the problem is important and for whom.
Ensure the problem is of general interest! Make clear that the problem is of interest not only to just one or a few actors.
Ensure the problem is solvable! Define and analyze the problem so that it becomes small enough to be solved.
Clarify the sources of the problem! Describe the literature and the stakeholders that have previously identified, studied and experienced the problem.
Describe your way of explicating the problem! Explain what you have done to explicate the problem, in particular how you have studied stakeholders and research literature. Artefact The artifact is a set of guidelines, i.e. a method. The guidelines are to XXX how NI should be further developed and applied so that compliance with the European standard CONTsys and the North American standard HL7 is maintained. Requirements Describe requirements on the artifact. Include requirements pertaining to function as well as construction and environment. Justify the requirements by relating them to stakeholder interests. Constructs are terms, notations, definitions, and oncepts that are needed for formulating problems and possible solutions to them. Constructs do not make any statements about reality, but they make it possible to speak about it, so that it can be understood and changed. Some typical examples of constructs are the concepts of class in UML, method in Java, functional dependency in relational database theory, and affordance in HCI. Constructs are the smallest conceptual atoms with which to understand and communicate about various phenomena. Knowledge Base Relevant standards
Information modelling Sources for the knowledge base are books, research papers, newspaper articles, white papers, blogs, web sites, etc. Constructs Define, describe and explain the most important constructs that are used in the work. Define Requirements Survey
Standarder m.m. Specify what artefact to build! Specify the type of the artefact (construct, model, method, instantiation) and its high level characteristics.
Formulate each requirement clearly! Describe each requirement in a precise and concise way.
Justify each requirement! Explain for each requirement why it is needed and relate it to the problem.
Be realistic but also original! Ensure that it is realistic to develop an artefact fulfilling the requirements but also try to be original.
Clarify the sources of the requirements! Describe the literature and the stakeholders that have contributed to defining the requirements.
Describe your way of defining the requirements! Explain what you have done to define the requirements, in particular how you have studied stakeholders and research literature. Develop Artefact Create an artifact that addresses the explicated problem and fulfils the defined requirements. Describe and justify the methods used in this task. Describe clearly each component of the artefact! Describe both functionality and construction of each artefact component.
Justify each component of the artefact! Explain the purpose of each artefact component, in particular which requirement(s) it addresses.
Describe the use of the artefact! Describe how the artefact and its components are intended to be used.
Clarify the originality! Explain in what respects the artefact is different from existing ones with respect to both fuctionality and construction.
Clarify the sources of the artefact design! Describe the literature and the stakeholders that have contributed to components of the artefact and/or inspired the design of new components.
Describe your way of designing and developing the artefact! Explain what you have done to design and develop the artefact, in particular how you have studied stakeholders, existing solutions, and research literature. Demonstrate Artefact How can the artifact be used to address the explicated problem in one case? Describe and justify the methods used for answering this question. Justify the choice of case! Explain why the chosen case is representative of the problem and challenging enough to offer an adequate testbed.
Make clear how much of the artefact is tested! Describe the components and aspects of the artefact that are actually used in the demonstration. Evaluate Artefact Ex-ante
Expertutvärdering Evaluate every requirement! Every requirement identified in the activity Outline Artefact and Define Requirements shall be evaluated.
Evaluate how the artefact can solve the problem! Investigate not only how well the artefact fulfils the requirements but also to what extent it can address the problem.
Describe your way of evaluating the artefact! Explain what you have done to evaluate the artefact, in particular how you have studied stakeholders using the artefact. Construction Describe the internal structure of the artifact, i.e. its components and their relationships and interactions. Discuss design rationale. Document the design rationale, i.e. a listing of and argumentation about the decisions made during a design process. A design rationale should contain the reasons and justifications behind design decisions, alternative decisions considered, and the argumentations leading to the decisions. A design rationale can support communication during a single design project, but it is also useful for facilitating reuse between different design projects. In fact, a design rationale can be the most valuable outcome of a design project, as it will record the reasoning behind design decisions including potential pitfalls. Function Describe the functions offered by the artifact. Explain how the construction of the artifact gives rise to the functions. Discuss how the functions contribute to fulfilling the requirements. Usability Discuss the usability of the artifact and how it can be improved, in particular processes and guidelines that can make it easier to use the artefact. A common guiding principle in artefact design is to hide the construction of an artefact from its future users and instead focus on its function. This means that a user should not have to care about the internal structure of the artefact but only about its function, i.e. how it can serve the user. Ideally, the user should not even be aware of the construction. An example is a clock, which someone can use without knowing whether it is constructed using mechanical parts or electronic components. Effects Discuss the effects of the artifact, direct and indirect as well as intended and unintended. Identify practices and resources that can be affected by the artifact and discuss them with respect to ethical and societal aspects. In order to analyse an artefact, it is often useful to distinguish between its construction, function, and environment. The construction of an artefact is about its inner workings, the components it consists of, how these are related, and how they interact with each other. An example could be a clock, which can be constructed from cogwheels, watch-hands, and other mechanical parts. The function of an artefact is the intended effect of using the artefact, i.e. what benefits the artefact typically can bring to its users. For example, the function of a clock is to tell the time, and the function of a lawn-mover is to cut grass. Finally, the environment of an artefact is about the external surroundings and conditions in which the artefact will operate. For example, a clock might be required to work in high pressure under water, or a lawn-mover should be able to operate in extremely low temperatures. Models are used to depict or represent other objects. A model can represent an existing situation, which can be used for describing and analyzing problem situations. Such a model may work as a pedagogical tool for representing the current situation and explaining why it is problematic. Creating models that describe and explain existing situations is a way of answering knowledge questions within behavioural science. However, models can also be used to describe potential solutions to practical problems, such as a drawing for a new type of vehicle or a proposal for an architecture of a new mobile operating system. Methods define processes for how to solve problems and achieve goals. It can be about creating artifacts such as computer programs, databases, mobile apps, etc. Methods can be highly formalized like algorithms, but they can also be informal such as rules of thumb or best practices. Some typical examples of methods are methods for database design, change management initiatives, or web service development.. Instantiations are working systems that can be used in practice. Some examples are a Java program realising a search algorithm, a database for electronic medical records, or a new planet in the computer game Entropia. Functional requirements depend on the problem to be addressed as well as the needs and wants of the stakeholders. Some examples of functional requirements for an electronic health record system could be to provide storage of X-rays, to enable doctors to enter information that will be unavailable to patients, or to allow patients to enter information on their self medication. Thus, functional requirements are very specific to the situation at hand. Requirements pertaining to construction and environment, on the other hand, are often more generic. Examples on construction requirements for the health record system could be that it should have a coherent and modular design. Examples on environment requirements could be that the system should be available on different platforms and be easy to adapt to changes. Constructs are terms, notations, definitions, and oncepts that are needed for formulating problems and possible solutions to them. Constructs do not make any statements about reality, but they make it possible to speak about it, so that it can be understood and changed. Some typical examples of constructs are the concepts of class in UML, method in Java, functional dependency in relational database theory, and affordance in HCI. Constructs are the smallest conceptual atoms with which to understand and communicate about various phenomena. An artefact is an object made by humans with the intention to be used for addressing a practical problem. The function of an artefact is the intended effect of using the artefact, i.e. what benefits the artefact typically can bring to its users. For example, the function of a clock is to tell the time, and the function of a lawn-mover is to cut grass.