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Australian Ecosystems Estuaries

Noa and Kimmi's Science Assessment Term 3
by

Noa Matsuda and Kimmi Tonkin

on 15 August 2013

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Transcript of Australian Ecosystems Estuaries

Australian Ecosystems Estuaries
Estuarine ecosystems are found where fresh water from rivers and streams mixes with the ocean water.

Estuaries are home to many aquatic and marine animals and plants.
Estuaries are important habitats for those who live here. many aquatic and marine diversity can be found here in the estuarine waters of Australia.

These environments provide important feeding, and breeding sites for many aquatic animals. There are animals, such as crabs and some mosquitoes, that rely on estuarine water to complete their life cycles and others, such as migratory birds, visit estuaries every once and a while to feed and rest.
The average yearly temperature of an Estuary is around 11.5 degrees.
The average wind speed can range from 9km/h to 18km/h in Leschenault Estuary
The average rainfall into an estuary is around 20mm per year
Estuarine Saltwater Crocodiles
Australian estuarine sea grass
Western Australia has the highest amount of seagrasses in the world.
Many seagrasses across the world are under threat because of dredging.
Sea grass is the main diet of dugongs.
29% of seagrass meadows have been destroyed
1.5% of the seagrass across the world is lost every year.
It lives in most estuaries in central and southern estuaries.
Most estuarine animals use seagrass as their shelter when the wind gets way over average.
Australian Estuarine Mangrove
Estuaries
Estuarine Ecosystem Averages
Estuarine Dugongs
-Dugongs seemed to be endangered because of dredging and trawl fishing which destroys seagrasses, which is the main food they eat.
-Dredging is used for digging, mining, gathering or pulling out plants to deepen waterways, bridges etc.
-Dugongs visit estuarine waters occasionally, mostly for calving.
Adaptations
-Physiological Adaptations Include:
-Heavy bones
-Liver removes all the salt from the plants they eat

-Behavioral Adaptations Include:
-Diving as deep as 39m for food
-Slow swimmers

-Anatomical Adaptations Include:
-Fish-like flippers and tail to swim
-Skin is thick and smooth
-Big mouths
Adaptations
Australia has the third largest area of Mangroves in the world after Indonesia and Brazil.
Mangroves inhabit the tidal sea edge and prefer waters less salty, unless they have glands in their leaves that excrete salt.
Mangroves don't live in Tasmania. But they are in every other state in Australia.
Mangroves are under threat because of heavy industry, pollution and contamination of the waters they lie in.
The saltwater crocodile is the largest reptile in the world. They are also known as the estuarine crocodiles.

During the wet and dry seasons these crocodiles move to different habitats
Saltwater crocodiles have huge jaws that are made to be able to shut quickly to catch there prey.
Saltwater crocodiles are cold blooded animals , but there blood is the same is the same temperature as the surrounding air. They like to have there body temperature at 30 degrees to 33 degrees.
Bibliography
http://designeranimals.wikispaces.com/Saltwater+Crocodile

http://www.water.wa.gov.au/PublicationStore/first/8799.pdf

http://www.reefed.edu.au/home/explorer/animals/marine_vertebrates/marine_mammals/dugongs

http://www.fish.wa.gov.au/Documents/recreational_fishing/fact_sheets/fact_sheet_estuarine_crocodile.pdf

http://www.mangrovewatch.org.au/index.php?option=com_content&view=section&layout=blog&id=18&Itemid=300032

http://bonzle.com/c/a?a=p&p=37497&wetgr=w&d=w&cmd=sp&c=1&x=115.70145&y=-33.26898&w=40000&mpsec=0

http://designeranimals.wikispaces.com/Saltwater+Crocodile
Adaptations
Physiological adaptations include:
-Some Mangroves have leaves with glands that excrete salt

Behavioral adaptations include:
-Turn their leaves to face the sun

Anatomical adaptations include:
-Big roots under water to provide a source of hydration.
Physiological Adaptations include:
-Need to rest after long periods of vicious activity

Behavioral Adaptations include:
-Like to have their body temperature 30-33 degrees.
-Communicating by signals and gestures

Anatomical Adaptations include:
-Rough scaly skin
-Huge jaws
Adaptations
Biotic and Abiotic things in an Estuary
Steps to make this ecosystem a safer place to live in
-Don't litter, it makes the waters polluted and dangerous for all living things in the estuary

-Don't drop plastic bags into the water

-Sign up to a community clean up

-Pick up a few pieces of rubbish every time you have the chance
Biotic things include:
-The living diversity
-Micro organisms
Abiotic things include:
-Water
-Salt
-Chemicals
-Minerals
-Temperature
Physiological Adaptations include:
-nil

Behavioral Adaptations include:
-Habits marine water

Anatomical Adaptations include:
-Horizontal Roots
Full transcript