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MUSIC THERAPY FOR DEPERESSION

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ellim kim

on 4 November 2014

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Transcript of MUSIC THERAPY FOR DEPERESSION

CONTROLLED STUDIES SUCCESSFULLY SHOW EVIDENCE
RESEARCHES SHOW MT AS A SCIENTIFIC APPROACH
How does MT work?
EFFECTS OF MUSIC THERAPY REVEALED
THE SCIENCE BEHIND MUSIC THERAPY?
CCST 9046
Tuesday, November 4th, 2014
Ellim, Jessica, Karina
QUICK FACTS ABOUT MT
IN BRIEF: WHAT IS MUSIC THERAPY?
- individual OR group
-methods: listening to music, singing, dancing, playing instruments
- popular music used in MT: Mozart's, Bach's, Sonatas, Classics, Baroque, etc.
- MT has its effects on brain / CNS / limbic system
MUSIC THERAPY FOR DEPRESSION
"To Access the Role of
Music Therapy
in Depression and Their Comparison With
Drug Therapy
"
"Impact of group music therapy on the depression mood of college students"
"Effects of
Music Therapy
on Depression Compared with
Psychotherapy
"
Psychotherapy
Pharmaceutical
treatments
antidepressants that inhibit the reuptake
of serotonin and recently noradrenaline
ex) Prozac / Fluoxetine / Efexor
Depression: Commonly Used Treatment Methods
References
Akiyama, K., & Sutoo, D. (2004). Music improves Dopaminergic Neurotransmission: Demonstration based on the effect of music on blood
pressure regulation. Brain Research, 10(16), 255–262. Retrieved from www.elsevier.com/locate/brainres

Bittman, Barry B., et al. (2013) "Composite effects of group drumming music therapy on modulation of neuroendocrine-immune parameters in
normal subjects." Alternative therapies in health and medicine 7.1 38-47.

Blood, A. (2001). Intensely pleasurable responses to music correlate with activity in brain regions implicated in REWARD and emotion.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 11818-11823.

Castillo-Pérez, S., Gómez-Pérez, V., Velasco, M., Pérez-Campos, E., & Mayoral, M. (2010). Effects of music therapy on depression compared
with psychotherapy. The Arts in Psychotherapy, 37, 387-390. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/01974556

Chanda, M., & Levitin, D. (2013). The neurochemistry of music. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 179-193.

Cohen, Emma EA, et al. (2010) "Rowers' high: behavioural synchrony is correlated with elevated pain thresholds." Biology Letters 6.1
106-108.

Gunter, et al,Kreutz (2004) "Effects of choir singing or listening on secretory immunoglobulin A, cortisol, and emotional state." Journal of
behavioral medicine 27.6 623-635

Koelsch, S. (2009). A Neuroscientific Perspective on Music Therapy. Annals of The New York Academy of Sciences, 1169, 378-384.
doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.2009.04592.x

Korhan, E. A., Khorshid, L., & Uyar, M. (2011). The effect of music therapy on physiological signs of anxiety in patients receiving mechanical
ventilatory support. Journal of clinical nursing, 20(7-8), 1026-1034.

Kumar, G., & Singh, B. K. (2013). To access the role of music therapy in depression and their comparison with drug therapy. International
Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, 4(8), 3099-3102. doi:10.13040/IJPSR

NHS. (2011, August 1). Music therapy for depression - Health News - NHS Choices. Retrieved from http://www.nhs.uk/news/2011/08August/
Pages/music-therapy-for-depression.aspx

Maratos, A., Crawford, M. J., & Procter, S. (2011). Music therapy for depression: it seems to work, but how?. The British Journal of Psychiatry,
199(2), 92-93.

Peretz, I., & Zatorre, R. J. (2005). Brain Organization for Music Processing. Annual Review of Psychology, 56, 89-114. doi:10.1146/
annurev.psych.56.091103.070225

Wang, J., Wang, H., & Zhang, D. (2011). Impact of group music therapy on the depression mood of college students. Health, 3(3), 151-155.
doi:10.4236/health.2011.33028
(Castillo-Pérez, Gómez-Pérez, Velasco, Pérez-Campos & Mayoral, 2010)
One of the commonly used psychotherapy for depression is
cognitive-behavioral therapy
.
Patients choose their own music
Recording subjective ratings of musical
features
Parallel experimental conditions to compare
Physiological measures
Bittman, Barry B., et al., 2001
Experiment
Participants:
A total of
111
age- and sex-matched volunteer subjects (55 men and 56 women, with a mean age of 30.4 years) were recruited
→4
group-drumming experimental models
(basic,impact,shamanic & composite)
&
→2
control groups (listening and resting)

Drumming group resulted in
increased dehydroepiandrosterone-to-cortisol ratios, increased natural killer cell activity, and increased lymphokine-activated killer cell activity.

Implies MT e.g. group drumming modulates specific neuroendocrine and neuroimmune parameters
Result
Enhanced immune system,
more natural killer cells and
antibodies.
Results
Implications
Decreases (increases) negative (positive) mood effectively
Boosts the release of Immunoglobulin A (antibody)
effectively→Enhanced immunity
NO significant decrease in Cortisol (stress hormone)
Increases negative mood, no obvious change in positive mood
Decreases cortisol release
→Psychological deactivation and stress reduction
NO significant increase in Immunoglobulin A
HAPPY HORMONES: ENDORPHIN
Dunbar, R. I., et al, 2011

Singing
(combined with
upper body movements
)

Strong effect
on pain threshold

Passive
listening/ No music control conditions

No difference
in pain threshold
Implications:
1. Music provides
rhythm & beat
to entrain synchrony,
dependent on mirror neuron system
→synchronized
activities significantly heightens
pain threshold:

release of endorphins from CNS and pituitary gland
→release
more endorphins
, more relaxed

2.
Active
music performance
>>>> Passive
listening
(Kumar, 2013)
Experiments reveal:
(Wang, Wang, Zhang, 2011)
MT AS SCIENCE: BRAIN REGULATIONS


Depression: dysfunction of amygdala + reduction in hippocampal formation (limbic) and orbitolfrontal cortex(paralimbic)
core structures of emotional processing



activate NAc→correlate with +ve emotions
activity changes of amygdala and hippocampus
Hippocampus: reanimate activity, prevent death of hippocampal neurons

THE FAMOUS "CHILLS EXPERIMENT"

Participants
: five female and five male, with at least 8 years of music training

Design & Procedures
:
1. Each participant selected one piece of music that consistently
elicited intensely pleasant emotional responses, including chills.

2. One 90-sec excerpt, including the section that elicited chills, was taken from each subject’s music selection and used as ‘‘subject-selected music’’ for that subject.
3. Subjects were asked to rate the emotional intensity of their responses to each of the other nine music selections; to qualify as a neutral control, emotional intensity ratings were required to be larger than 3 on a scale of 0 to 10 (10 = most intense).

4. PET scans with MRI scans used as they listen to different music.

5. After each PET scan, subjects rates their chills intensity, emotional intensity and "unpleasant vs pleasant "
Depression is...
Limbic and Paralimbic Structures
Effects of MT
IMPLICATIONS
Increase chill intensity can...

↑ rCBF in brain regions involved in
reward and emotions
(e.g. insula, orbitofrontal cortex, ventral striatum, dorsal midbrain)

↓ rCBF in
amygdala and hippocampus
(structures of limbic structures)
RESULTS
IMPLICATIONS
Limbic structure: NAc→ innervated by dopaminergic brain stem neurons→
activity of NAc correlates with experience of pleasure + self-rewarded positive emotion elicited by the reward cue
##MT: increases rCBF in NAc
→ can make use of this to
elevate mood
RESULTS
Koelsch, S. 2009
Blood, A. (2001)
Chanda, M., & Levitin, D. (2013)
Blood, A. (2001)
Koelsch, S. (2009)
Koelsch, S. (2009).
Controls
:
Each subject's selected music was used as other subject's emotionally 'neutral' control
Three Stages of Intervention
Step 1
Step 2
Step 3
"...assessments made a further three months after the therapy finished showed that these differences were no longer statistically significant."
NHS, 2011
33 out of 41
28 out of 38
as time progresses, music therapy is not as effective as drug therapy!
Though it seems to be a short term effect...
depression is associated with dysfunction of amygdala and volume reduction in hippocampus (ex: neurons, blocakges of neurogenesis, etc.)
Overall...
brain, neurotransmitter, hormones, hippocampus, amygdala, limbic system, and more!
Full transcript